Serological studies

Serological tests - immunological methods, which are known antibody (diagnostic serum) is defined antigen is unknown or known antigen (diagnostikum) - unknown antibody. Serological tests are widely used in various infectious diseases, and to establish blood groups and species of protein.
In infectious pathology detection in serum of patients with antibodies to one or another type of pathogen negative bacteriological study allows to determine the etiology of the disease. In case of obtaining pure cultures of the causative agent by using the appropriate serum determine its species.
Serological reactions are the result of communication (connection) antigen (see), with the corresponding antibody (see), which can be manifested both in the conditions of dense environment (agar gel)and liquid. They proceed in two phases: 1) invisible - direct connection antigen to antibody 2) visible - the end result of the reaction. Reactions occur in the presence of electrolytes of 0.85% NaCl solution) at a temperature of 37 degrees.
Most of serological reactions has a high specificity. However, in the presence of different species of bacteria, viruses, tissues so-called common antigens may be nonspecific (group) reactions.
To serological reactions include: agglutination (see), precipitation (see) in liquids and gels, ipconfiguration reaction neutralization (viruses, toxins) and a reaction of binding complement - RAC (see Board-Zhang reaction) and its modifications. In addition, it is applied the so-called reaction immobilization, which is based on the fact that in the case of interaction of antibodies with the relevant movable types of microorganisms last lose their ability to move. This phenomenon serves as an indicator of education specific complex antigen - antibody.
The agglutination reaction has found wide application in the diagnosis of tularemia, candidiasis, dysentery, typhoid (see Vidal reaction), typhus (see Weil - Felix reaction) and other Reaction precipitation wide application in microbiological diagnosis is not received, the exception is the response of thermoreceptor (see Ascoli reaction and the reaction diffusion precipitation in the gel, which shows toxigenicity diphtheria cultures. However, the reaction of precipitation is widely used in forensic medicine and hygiene.
The neutralization reaction based on what specific immune serum neutralizes the effect of the corresponding antigen.
The reaction of binding complement (RAC) is widely used in the diagnosis of syphilis (see Wasserman reaction), gonorrhoea, rhinoscleroma, Sapa, toxoplasmosis and other
Reaction immobilization is used in the diagnosis of syphilis - reaction immobilization pale treponem (IBT), and cholera.