Sex hormones

Sex hormones are hormones produced by the male and female sex glands and the adrenal cortex.
Sex hormones on chemical structure, are steroids. The sex hormones are estrogens, Progestogens and androgens.
Estrogens - female sex hormones, are presented estradiol and products of its transformation by estrone and estriol.
Estrogens are produced by cells of the follicles in the ovary. Some amount of estrogen produced in the adrenal cortex. They provide the development of female sex organs and secondary sexual characteristics. Under the influence of estrogen, the development of which is increased in the middle of the menstrual cycle before ovulation, increase circulation and the size of the uterus, growing cancer of the endometrium, the increase contractions of the uterus and fallopian tubes, i.e. preparation for perception of a fertilized egg.
To Progestogens refers progesterone, which is produced by luteum of the ovary, adrenal cortex, and during pregnancy and in the placenta. Under his influence the conditions for implantation (implementation) eggs. In the case of fertilization luteum produces progesterone during pregnancy. The secretion of progesterone in this case leads to the termination of cyclical phenomena in the ovary, the development of the placenta and expansion of the secretory epithelial breast.
Androgens - male sex hormones testosterone and Androsterone, which are produced Leydig cells of the testes. In the adrenal gland produces steroidsthat have androgenic activity. Androgens stimulate spermatogenesis and influence the development of the sexual organs and secondary sexual characteristics (configuration of the larynx, the growth moustache, beard, distribution of pubic hair, the development of the skeleton, muscles).
The production of sex hormones is regulated by the gonadotropic hormones of the pituitary gland.
Preparations sex hormones (see Progesterone, Testosterone, the Follikulina, Estradiol) are used in obstetric practice, in the treatment of some endocrine diseases (insufficiency of sex glands), and tumors of the breast and prostate. Long-term administration of estrogen male (for example, in the treatment of tumors of the prostate gland) inhibits the function of the testis and severity of male secondary sexual characteristics. Long-term administration of androgens women suppresses the menstrual cycle.
Treatment of sex hormones should be carried out only under the supervision of a doctor, medical assistant independently appoint sex hormones should not.

Sex hormones are hormones produced by the reproductive glands (male and female) and cortical layer of the adrenal glands.
Sex hormones have a specific effect on the sex pathways and the development of secondary sexual characteristics, determine the development of the status of male and a female, eroticashot Central nervous system and cause libido sexualis. By their chemical nature sex hormones are steroid compounds characterized by the presence of cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene ring system. Sex hormones can be divided into three groups; the estrogens, progesterone and androgens. All estrogen - estradiol, estrone and estriol - have a specific biological activity. Primary estrogenic hormone is estradiol. He discovered in the jugular vein that carries venous blood. Estrone and estriol - products of its metabolism. The estrogen in the female body is exposed to cyclical changes. The highest concentration of estrogen in the blood and urine happens to women in the middle of the menstrual cycle before ovulation, and the animals in heat. In the last three months of pregnancy in women increases the content of estriol.
The main source of education estradiol is the follicle (grafov bubble) of the ovary. Female sex hormone produced, according to current data, the cells of the granular layer (stratum granulosum) and the inner layer of connective tissue sheath (theca interna), mainly cells granular layer (approximately 5 times more than the cells of the inner layer of connective tissue sheath). A large number of estradiol contained in follicular fluid. In extracts of the adrenal cortex is found estrone.
In the main female sex hormone affects the female reproductive tract. Under the influence of estrogens occur hyperemia and the stroma increases and the musculature of the uterus, rhythmic its reduction, as well as the growth of the endometrial glands. Estrogens increase the mobility of the fallopian tubes, especially during estrus in animals or in the middle of the menstrual cycle, when the title of the female sex hormone raised. This increase mobility promotes the egg from the oviduct. Reinforced contractions facilitate the movement of sperm towards the oviduct, in the upper third of which fertilization occurs.
Estrogens cause keratinization of epithelial mucous membrane vagina (estrus). Most expressed this reaction in rodents. After castration in rodents falls stage of estrus, characterized by the presence in the vaginal smear dead cells (scales). Injection estrogen neutered animals completely restored typical PAP test picture heat. The woman in the middle of the menstrual cycle, when the concentration of estrogen in the blood is increased, there is also a process of keratinization (incomplete) epithelial cells of the vagina. In some rodents vagina immature closed. Introduction of estrogen causes the perforation and disappearance vaginal membrane.
Estrogens cause blood tissues sexual tract, improves their nutrition. There are data indicating that the mechanism of such improvements are involved histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)released from the uterus under the influence of estrogen. Under the influence of female sexual hormone is an increase of water content in tissues of the uterus, the accumulation of DNA and RNA, noticeable absorption of serum albumin, sodium. The estrogens are involved in the development of breast cancer. Under the influence of estrogen comes hypercalcemia. In a lengthy introduction of the female sex hormone is overgrowing epiphyseal cartilage and growth inhibition. There is antagonism between the female sex hormone and male sex gland. Long-term administration of estrogen inhibits the function of the testis, terminates spermatogenesis and inhibits the development of secondary male sex characteristics.

Androgens. The primary male sex hormone, produced in the testicles is testosterone. He highlighted in crystalline form from the testes of the ox, horse, pig, rabbit, and human rights and identified in venous blood, flowing from the testicles dogs. In urine testosterone is not detected. Urine contains the product of its currency - androstene. Androgens are formed also in the cortical layer of the adrenal glands. Urine contains their metabolites - dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone. Along with the above active androgens in the urine are biologically inert androgenic compounds, such as 3(a)-hydroxyethane-17-it.
Women excreted in the urine androgens mainly adrenal origin, some of them formed in the ovary. In men, some amount of androgens are excreted in the urine, also adrenal origin. This is indicated by the selection of androgens with urine at neuter and eunuchs. Androgens men are mainly formed in the testicles. Leydig cells interstitial tissue testicles are the producers of the male sex hormone. It is established, that at processing slices testicles phenyl-reactive substance with closedtime, only in the Leydig cells has positive reaction, indicating the presence of ketosteroids. When cryptorchidism is a violation of spermatogenic functions, but the secretion of sex hormones long time remains normal. Thus remain intact Leydig cells.
Androgens have a selective effect on the dependent development of male secondary sex characteristics. Among these symptoms in birds include the crest, barb, earrings, the sexual instinct; in mammals - seminal vesicles and the prostate gland. Under the control of the male sex hormone in humans are the development of voices, skeleton, muscles, the configuration of the larynx, and the distribution of facial hair and pubic hair. The androgen influence on the growth of genitals. Under their influence varies concentration of acid phosphatase in the prostate gland. Androgens eroticashot the Central nervous system. One of the functions of the male P., is its ability to stimulate spermatogenesis.
Male sex hormone has antiestrogenic activity. It inhibits the astral cycle in animals, the menstrual function in women. Male P., and has some of the properties of progesterone. Under its influence in the endometrium neutered animals often come nerez to denominated prehravanie changes. It causes as well as progesterone, refrakternosti muscles of the uterus to oxytocin. Androgens suppress lactation in women, probably as a result of inhibition of secretion of prolactin by the anterior pituitary gland.
Among the characteristic physiological properties of the androgenic hormone should be attributed to the effects on protein metabolism. It stimulates the formation and accumulation of the protein, mainly in the musculature. The most pronounced anabolic effect has testosterone propionate and methyl-testosterone. On the other hand, such androgens, as androstene or dehydroepiandrosterone, does not stimulate the accumulation of the protein.

Androgens have some menotropinam action. They cause an increase in weight of the kidneys caused by hypertrophy of convoluted tubule epithelium and romanovskoj capsules.
Male sex hormone plays a significant role in inducing the development of the male genital tract in embryogenesis. In the absence of testosterone develops the female genital system.
Production and secretion P., controlled by the anterior pituitary gland and its gonadotropic hormones: follicle-stimulating (FSH), luteinizing (L, G) and luteotrophic (LTG). In females FSH controls the growth of follicles. However, for the secretion of estrogen follicles need a synergistic effect FSH and LH. Luteinizing hormone stimulates preovulatory the growth of follicles, the secretion of estrogen and induce ovulation. Under the influence of LH happen formation of yellow body and secretion of progesterone. For continuous functioning of the yellow body needs the intervention of a third gonadotropic hormone - LTG.
FSH and LH have a regulating effect on the male sex gland. Under the control of FSH is the spermatogenic function of the testis. LH stimulates the interstitial tissue and Leydig cells to release male sex hormone. In the experiments with the use of highly purified FSH or LH was shown the possibility of stimulation of spermatogenesis in isolation or secretion of the male hormone.
The relationship between sex hormones and gonadotroponah hormones (see) are of a bilateral nature. P., depending on their concentration in blood on the basis of feedback (principle of plus or minus interaction MM of Zavadovsky) have a deterrent or a stimulating effect on the secretion of the gonadotropic hormones. Thus, long-term administration of estrogen leads to inhibition of follicle-stimulating pituitary function. Castration, on the contrary, causes activation of both follicle-stimulating and luteinizing pituitary function. Introduction of estrogen in a certain phase of the estrous cycle stimulates the secretion of LH. Progesterone in large quantities inhibits the secretion of LH and in small doses it stimulates. On the basis of feedback built and the relationship between androgens and gonadotropic hormones of the anterior pituitary.
The secretion of sex hormones sexual glands under the influence of hormones of the pituitary gland, and the influence of P., gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland are under the control of the hypothalamus (see). Stereotactic damage to the anterior hypothalamus inhibits the secretion of FSH, the destruction in the area between mailername and ventromedial cores stimulates the secretion of this hormone. The secretion of LH is also controlled by the anterior hypothalamus. Inhibitory effect of estrogen on gonadotropic function of the pituitary is implemented through the hypothalamus. If damaged region of the anterior hypothalamus estrogen not have a braking effect on the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in rats. There are indications that the inverse relationship between estrogen and pituitary gland and is at the level of the back of the hypothalamus. Implantation tablets of estradiol in the region arquatrix and mamillary nuclei leads to atrophy of the ovary and inhibits compensatory hypertrophy of the ovary after the unilateral castration.
Preparations sex hormones are widely used in obstetrics and gynecology, as well as in the clinic of endocrine diseases in the treatment of a disease Itsenko-Kushinga, pituitary, cachexia and other Drugs P. was also included in the Arsenal of medical tools Oncology therapy for tumors of the breast and prostate cancer (see Antineoplastic agents).