Mine is industrial facilities for the extraction of coal and other minerals in the underground way. The composition of these objects include land buildings, facilities and underground mining. At construction of mine have the same occupational hazards, which in operation: (a) adverse microclimatic conditions, especially in the much watered mines, deep deposits of minerals (high temperature and relative humidity)and in the permafrost zone; b) dust (see), which can cause pneumoconiosis and dust bronchitis; intense noise (see) and vibration (see). The drillers and drifters mines, working with drilling and pneumatic tools, can develop vibration disease and hearing loss. In coal mines possible explosion of mine (marsh) gas (methane).
Health activities. Radical activity in the construction of mines is the mechanization of production operations, to significantly reduce the period of stay of persons in a newly built trunks and other underground workings. An important role in the improvement of working conditions have activities aimed at reducing dust, intensity of noise and vibration, normalization microclimatic conditions (supply of outdoor heated air, organisation of chambers of heating on mines located in areas of permafrost). It is very important in the watery mines to ensure drifters special clothing and shoes made of waterproof materials. Mine gas-bearing zones must be lighted with lamps explosion-proof versions. Individual lamp miners shall meet the same requirement.
Injury prevention is achieved mechanization of industrial processes, observance of the safety, well-lit work areas.
On the surface of mines should be built sanitary facilities (showers, dressing rooms for clean and dirty clothes, dryer for shoes and clothes and others). In the mines with the number of workers not less than 500 organized underground clinic.
For the identification, treatment and employment of persons afflicted by pneumoconiosis (see), vibration disease (see), hearing loss (see), bursitis (see), conduct pre-employment and periodic medical examinations 1 time in two years. Workers in underground mining operations have a six-hour working day and the release from 30 to 48 working days.
Cm. also Mining industry, Coal industry.

Mine is the enterprise on extraction of coal and other minerals in the underground way.
Work on dredging coal is divided into the following separate operations: cut, blasting and nawalka coal, shipping it from abatement space, fastening of mountain developments and management of the roof. The notch and breakage of coal can be done manually jackhammers, as well as electric machines with drilling and blasting method. Nawalka coal lava pipeline in such cases is made by hand shovels. At the combine notch (and sinking) these operations are performed by the processor. Transportation of coal to mine trunk is scraper and tape conveyors, and also in the car with electric drive. Loading of the rock mass in the preparatory workings can be made coal - and rock-loading machines or manually.
The increasing distribution is received new, progressive methods of coal mining: gidroponiki using a jet of water under high pressure, the clearing mechanized complexes, eliminating a significant number of manual operations and reduce the number of people in the pit; dredging of coal plows that greatly reduces dust formation in the face.

Occupational hazards. The main occupational hazards in the extraction of coal in mines are: dustiness of air pollution harmful gases, adverse microclimate (see), industrial, noise and vibration, poor lighting, significant physical tension.
Most dust is at work combines, coal-cutter, she reaches hundreds of milligrams per 1 m3 of air. Several less dust is released during the process of drilling, coal loading machines and transportation. Mount underground workings and delivery of forests also pollute the air by a large amount of dust (see). Dust in coal mines has a high dispersion; the number of dust particles up to 3 MK is 85-90%, with a high speed of movement of air in mine, this fine dust is suspended.
The composition of the dust in coal mines mixed coal-rock). Only at penetration of preparatory excavations on net rocks can meet rock dust without admixture of coal. In these faces in the composition of dust can be more than 10% of free silica (sometimes up to 50% and more). In the coal mines dust, typically contains up to 10% silica (usually 4-5%). The microclimate of coal mines depends on their depth, geographic zones, speed airing faces and R.
When operating mining machines and mechanisms arise industrial noise (see) and vibration (see). Work of the coal and roadheaders and coal-cutter accompanied by high - and mid-frequency noise with the intensity of 90-105 dB. Considerable noise and vibration are marked at work manual pneumatic' and electric instruments.
Air coal mines which may be contaminated with various gases and poisonous substances, usually formed during blasting. This is primarily carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides.
In violation of the established mode of ventilation faces the concentration of these gases may be many times higher than the maximum permissible value. When applying detonators containing dangerous mercury and lead azide, in the atmosphere of coal mines can come compounds of lead and mercury in excess of the permissible norms.
Light levels created by the portable rechargeable lamps, which are working in the love and preparatory faces, irregular and are in the range of 7 to 12 LK.
Forced stress positions, sometimes in wet workings largely defines the incidence of underground workers: cold th pustular diseases, diseases of the muscles, joints and peripheral nervous system, injuries (see). Of occupational diseases in miners are pneumoconiosis (see), more often antracosilicosis, vibration disease (see), hearing loss (see). Often bursitis (see) traumatic aetiology.
Prevention activities. The primary means of improvement of working conditions is the introduction of new, advanced technologies of a coal mining (gidroponiki, outdoor fashion, deserted dredging), and full mechanization and automation of main works with remote control, application of new vehicles (planes)reducing impacts on working dust, noise, vibration and other
The struggle with the main occupational hazards - dust - should go to embed on mines complex dedusting. The complex includes: the water is injected into the coal seam (at work combines, coal-cutter), gidroservice, water curtains and cumanagoto for blasting, drilling, application plasmacytoma additives, spray irrigation during loading-reloading works and other Important rational ventilation with optimal speed ventilation (0,8-1,6 m/s). In some cases, the appropriate use dust respirator (see) Astra-2, RPK, Petal. To reduce the production of noise and vibrations necessary constructive and special events: sound and vibration insulating cushioned pads, vibromassage carriage on the guns, silencers for pneumatic machines and tools, etc.
Of great importance preliminary (see Professional selection) and periodic medical examinations (see), to show an early stage of occupational diseases. Important for the prevention of occupational and other diseases miners have sanitary-household and medical care, the organization on mines of inhalatorium, night dispensaries, creating in the coal areas protivojikotny dispensaries, timely treatment.
Soviet legislation provides benefits for miners: a reduced 6-hour working day, additional holidays from 12 to 24 days, depending on work conditions, benefits on retirement. Essential in the prevention of occupational diseases miners have sanitary norms in rules limiting exposure to harmful factors.
Cm. also Mining industry.