Industrial noise and vibration, their influence on the organism and preventive measures

Noise is one of the most common adverse factors of production environment. Noise sources and noise are vibrating body. The main production processes, accompanied by the noise,is a riveting, stamping, testing aircraft engines, work on weaving machines and other Speaking about the effect of noise on the body, it should be borne in mind that he renders as local, and the overall impact. Thus quickens the pulse, breathing, increased blood pressure, change of motor and secretory function of the stomach and other organs. Unfavourable impact of noise on the nervous system, causing headaches, insomnia, the weakening of attention, slowing of mental reactions that ultimately leads to the loss of efficiency.
Under production conditions on the foreground there is the effect of noise on the hearing; developing professional hearing loss. In the basis of the professional hearing loss is the damage kortieva body, located in the inner ear.
To combat the production of noise, provides for the following activities:
- insulation of noise sources in the production facilities through the installation of a dense wood, brick walls with the transfer of control from behind the screen. If it is impossible to isolate noise sources should be installed near them soundproof cabins for staff;
- installation of units, the work of which is accompanied by a severe concussion (hammers, forging machines and others), vibration-damping materials or on a special Foundation;
- replacement noisy technological processes silent (stamping, forging is replaced by a pressure treatment, welding);
- location of the bustling shops at a certain distance from residential buildings, with observance zones breaks. They should be focused in one place and surrounded by greenery. The walls of the workshops should be thickened, and from the inside is lined with a special acoustic plates;
- the use of individual devices for protection of the organ of hearing (plugs and ear, helmets and other).
From the physical point of view, the vibration is an aggregate of the vibrational motion that is repeated at certain intervals of time, and is characterized by a certain frequency of oscillation, the amplitude and the acceleration.
Local action vibration is noted mainly for work with various types of hand machines and rotary-percussion - jackhammers, pneumatic chisels and other
The clinical picture of vibration disease when exposed to local vibration polymorphic and has its own peculiarities depending on the frequency characteristics influenced vibration and related professional factors.
Depending on the severity of the clinical picture distinguish four stages of vibration disease. First, initial proceeds oligosymptomatic. Subjectively marked pain and paresthesia in the hands; objectively mild disorders of sensitivity at your fingertips, a slight decrease vibration sensitivity, the tendency of spastic condition of the capillaries of the nail bed. The process is quite reversible.
The second stage is characterized by moderate to severe symptom. Painful phenomena and paresthesias more hours, reduces skin sensitivity fingers or all brush. Functional disorders of the Central nervous system or asthenic astheno-neurotic character. The process is reversible if we stop work and carrying out of special treatment.
During the third stage comes expressed vascular disorders, accompanied by seizures spasm of blood vessels and the whitening of the fingers, paritycheck the capillaries and the blueness. The sensitivity decreases peripheral and segmental type. Marked asthenic and neurasthenic reaction, impaired cardiovascular, endocrine systems and others, This stage is characterized by the persistence of pathological changes and poorly responds to treatment.
The fourth stage is rare - disease process is characterized by generalized vascular disorders are the result of damage to the highest parts of the Central nervous system. Sensitivity disorders are pronounced and widespread. In the course of this stage refers to the persistent and malobrathum the state, accompanied by a sharp decrease of efficiency up to its complete loss.


The overall effect of vibration on the body primarily due to the concussion sex and other barriers due percussion machines (Molotov, stamps and other), the movement to combat and transport machines and so on
In vibration disease, caused by the overall vibration, the most frequently reported changes in the peripheral nerves and vessels of the legs: leg pains, fatigue, mild disorders of sensitivity in peripheral type, pain in the calf muscles, the weakening of the surge in the arteries of the foot.
In the initial stages of diseases of the peripheral violations are often combined with shifts in the Central nervous system. When expressed more forms of vibration disease caused by exposure to General vibration, dominated by disturbances in the Central nervous system and the vestibular apparatus, proceeding by the mechanism of vestibulopathy. Such patients appear dizziness and headaches, intolerance shaking, asthenic condition, neurotic reactions, pronounced syndrome vegetative polinevrita (feet and hands are cold, reduced ripple and others). When working on a vibrating platform workers celebrated deeper violation of the Central nervous system, accompanied by the development of diencephalic syndrome.
When assessing local vibration use GOST 17770-72. Subject of valuation range of oscillatory speed in octave bands effort of pressing and held hands the weight of the machine or its parts.
Is oscillatory speed (meters per second) or corresponding levels in decibels in octave frequency should not exceed the values specified in table. 19. The effort of pressing, put his hands working to manual car, should not exceed 200 N, and held-weight-100 N (N - Newton - equal is 0.102 kg).

Table 19. The admissible values of oscillatory speed manual machines affecting working hands
Geometric mean frequencies octave band (Hz) The cutoff frequency of the octave band (Hz) Valid oscillatory speed
bottom top effective values (m/s) the levels of effective values (dB)
8
16
32
63
125
250
500
1000
2000
5,6
11,2
22,4
45
90
180
355
710
1400
11,2
22,4
45
90
180
355
710
1400
2800
5,00·10-2
5,00·10-2
5,00·10-2
2,50·10-2
1,80·10-2
1,20·10-2
0,90·10-2
0,63·10-2
0,45·10-2
120
120
117
114
111
108
105
102
99
Note. In octave band with geometric average of the frequency of 8 Hz control of numeric values oscillatory speed should be performed only for machines with manual speed or bumps less of 11.2 per second.

Overall assessment of the vibration proceed from the requirements of the sanitary norms SN 245-71. Regulated vibration parameters are the RMS value of oscillatory speed in octave frequency or amplitude of movements, driven machine, the machines and other equipment and transferred to the seat, the floor and working platforms in production premises.
The measure of vibration control:
- the device mechanized holders for pneumatic tools, which reduces muscular tension;
- the use of soft gloves, debilitating blows;
- reduction of vibration transmitted seats (drivers, tankers, tractor drivers)by using the flexible pads, pillows on seats;
- replacement of pneumatic riveting welding;
- the right organization (striping) work and rest.
Of great importance in the fight against harmful effects of noise and vibration is preliminary and periodic medical examinations. Contraindications to employment in the bustling shops are diseases of hearing organs, nervous condition, hypertension and peptic ulcer.
On work-related exposure to vibration, you should not accept persons with vegetative nervous disorders, endocrine disorders, bone defects of the limbs, hypertension.