Clothing industry

The garment industry is a sector of light industry, which produces all kinds of clothes from natural and synthetic fabrics and other materials.
Production technology and occupational hazards. Tissue after partitioning and almalki raskraivajut on stationary cutting and hand vertically elochnyj machines. While in the air of working premises comes wool, cotton, viscose, nylon and lavsan dust. The largest amount of dust is allocated on the area of the flooring and almalki (especially when flooring and stitch wool), and while dusting stencil talc and blue, at least - when cutting on stationary cutting machines. Markup, Omelko and cutting workers perform standing in a bent position; these operations require a large eyestrain.
The Assembly of garments composed of many operations: acquisition and numbering cut, installation products, including work on a universal and special machines, Ironing, pressing, Stripping, moulding (hats).
Microclimate sewing workshops are characterized by a relative constancy: temperature 23-26 degrees, the humidity of 65 - 70%. In summer the air temperature in tailoring workshops reaches at individual workplaces (pressing on, pressing on) 29-32 degrees. Relative humidity in summer is much lower (56-66%)than in winter (72-78%). When Stripping products it can rise up to 80-85%. Work on the pipeline, especially on sewing machines requires significant stress of view and attention. The noise of engines reaches 76-88 dB at high frequency noise spectrum. At the same time vibrations occur (52-72 Hz and amplitude of 0.11 - 0.16 mm) work surfaces and seats seamstresses with vertical displacement of the table.
Some operations on the pipeline associated with the emission of dust (3 : 8 mg/m3). In the factories for the manufacture of vinyl chloride cloaks to glue seams apply ultra-high frequency currents. Screening emitting UHF elements eliminate their harmful effects.
The disease. Expressed occupational diseases in the garment industry is not observed. The relatively high incidence of gynaecological diseases among women working on the sewing machines, explained mainly by vibration (see) and forced body position (sitting) during operation, which causes venous congestion in small pelvis organs, which leads to the weakening of the ligaments of the uterus, changes its provisions (omission, retroflexa). Vibration leads to frequent exacerbations of inflammatory processes in the genitals and increase the duration of their course. Possible disorders of menstruation (increased bleeding and pain).
Pustular skin diseases develop due to minor injuries (injection needles fingers, scratches, abrasions, burns)related to failure to comply with sanitary and technical requirements. The big place is occupied cuts fingers on blades.
Health activities. Reducing morbidity is achieved primarily by the mechanization of work processes, as well as correct operation of the equipment. Processes, with considerable heat, moisture, gas and dust pleating and corrugation products, forming foam products, final pressing and pressing, Stripping and stuffing hats, Laundry and podkomarnaya) should be made in separate rooms. Ventilation of industrial premises by creating mechanical inflow and local exhaust at sources of harmful vapors, gases or dust. The press should be placed by the group with the device over them shut glazed curtains with a hood. To eliminate dust in cotton plants would be practical to replace some sections of the wool Vasilina and foam. One of the main measures to improve working conditions is correct, the lighting of workplaces, which should be combined (General and local); General lighting can be combined with a local placing lights taking into account the nature and peculiarities of manufacturing operations. In the main shops of the sewing factories as light sources should be used fluorescent lamp light-diffusing the valve. Requirements to the level of illumination depending on the category and podrzana separate operations set in accordance with Industry norms lighting systems garment factories" (1961).
Of great importance for the improvement of working conditions has the right organization of the mode of work and rest on the conveyor. The organization of water gymnastics and sports breaks with the use of properly designed complex of exercises and additional 5-10-minute breaks helps to reduce the incidence of, and increase productivity. To conduct introductory gymnastics and sports pauses important proper selection of gymnastic exercises, which should be aimed at improving breathing and posture, strengthening of muscles of lower limbs, muscle relaxation fingers, and working on Ironing details on the relaxation of the muscles of the upper and lower extremities; reduction of vibration is achieved when placing sewing shops on the ground floor of the factories with the installation of sewing machines on a concrete base, and also the device of concrete floor slabs.
Employed women have a gynecological exam. Proper organization of selection, regular gynecological checkups (2 times per year) in combination with other preventive measures (dispensary registration, identification of women with various disorders in the genital area, sanprosvet, correct work of women's hygiene rooms and gynecological and other) can significantly reduce the incidence of gynaecological diseases.