Silicon (Silicium, Si) is a chemical element of group IV of the periodic system of elements of D. I. Mendeleyev, number 14, atomic weight 28,086. Is a brown powder or gray crystals, temperature melting 1420 degrees. In the free state is not found. Included in the composition of rocks (granite and other) in the form of salts of silicic acid - complex silicates, which contains aluminium - silicates (mica, nepheline and other), in the form of silicon dioxide (Si02) and hydrated forms of silicon dioxide. Silicon compounds are used as construction materials (Sandstone, granite, asbestos and others), in production of glass and porcelain, in foundries (foundry sand), in the electrical industry (mica and talc) and so on
The increasing application is found with silicon compounds with hydrogen and oxygen - silanes and siloxanes, with carbon - organosilicon - silicones (see below), and other
Special attention of health workers require mining (mining and processing of ores of non-ferrous and precious metals), porcelain and faience production, sandblasting casting and other products as having significant of privrzenost.
Toxicity of natural compounds of silicon is determined by the availability of silicon dioxide (SiO2), which is when significant entering the lungs causes silicosis (see Pneumoconiosis).
Organosilicon (silicones) represent a large group of substances used in the production of various resins, rubber, rubber, plastics, synthetic fibers. In their physical properties is liquids or gases. They have mainly sharply irritant action on the mucous membranes of eyes and upper respiratory tract. In addition, some compounds can cause burns to the skin and diseases type of dermatitis and eczema. Getting these substances on mucous membrane of the eye can lead to ulceration of the cornea with a complete loss of vision.
First aid at acute poisoning organosilicon compounds: the victim to fresh air; alkaline inhalations; in the affected areas of skin lotions (lead water, Borovskaya liquid and others). Further therapeutic measures depending on the nature and severity of the lesion.
Prevention should be aimed at reducing dust in the air of industrial premises; insulation processes, accompanied by the emission of dust, of the total industrial premises; provision of local exhaust ventilation; replacement of "dry" drilling in the mining industry wet with application plasmacytoma liquids; the use of respirators, special helmets with the supply of clean air and others; medical examinations at least once a year.
Maximum permissible concentration of dust in the content of free SiO2 more than 70%-1 mg/m3, the content-free SiO2 from 10 to 70% of the 2 mg/m3, for silicate dust 4 mg/m3.
When working with organosilicon compounds need to use gloves, aprons, protective goggles, protective pastes and creams, for some operations - masks.