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Physiological changes of blood during exercise

In sports medicine, in addition to the study of the morphological composition of blood, now receive the dissemination methods of study of the functional properties of leucocytes. The use of these methods allows to study metabolic processes in the cell and to identify enzymes involved in cell metabolism. So, for example, glycogen, being energy substance, provides motor, phagocytic, digestive and other abilities of cells. Its quantity in athletes is the same as we are not involved in sports. However, in a state of acute and chronic fatigue this indicator is significantly reduced. The change in the number of glycogen leukocytes after exercise may be the criterion of estimation of functional condition of the sportsman. If it is high enough, then after loading quantity of glycogen is reduced, and if low, this figure does not change. Determination of alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase and RNA helps sports physician during the examination of sportsmen. Great importance of these enzymes in the metabolism of cells, determines the need for their studies because they can be used to assess the changes that occur in the body during physical work.
By A. C. Janowski (1970), there are 2 types of responses of peripheral blood in response to inadequate and adequate physical activity for athletes. If, after the 1-St in the blood is the 3rd phase of myogenic leukocytosis, reducing the number of glycogen activity of peroxidase and increase RNA, then after the 2nd these changes are not defined. The author believes that if inadequate response depletion occurs myeloid reserve, and with adequate redistribution of blood in the transport system.
In later work A. C. Janowski (1985) suggests using other indicators that may facilitate the timely detection of early signs of stress the body. In particular, we are talking about the determination of lactate dehydrogenase, dehydrogenase, cytoplasmic and mitochondrial alpha-glitserofosfatdegidrogenazy and other
On the possibility of using as criteria fatigue determine peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase indicates Century N. Volkov (1971).
However, the picture changes in the peripheral blood cannot be considered complete without the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin. Use these indicators to evaluate the impact of exercise on blood system traditionally. Such studies were carried out by many authors. During the examination of sportsmen of different kinds of sports they found that under the influence of physical activity is an increase in the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin. Some authors consider, that the increase of these indicators is due to the release of blood from the depot, and thickening of the blood due to dehydration. This reaction is regarded as an indicator of good training of athletes.
Along with the increase in the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin in the blood during exercise, in the literature there are data on their reduction. According to A. N. Vorob'ev and M. S. Kireev (1961), this reaction is associated with a decrease in the resistance of the formed elements, but mostly it is due to the receipt of tissue fluid in the blood stream due to the increase of chloride in the blood due to increased sweating when muscle activity. At the same time comes the increase in the number of reticulocytes due to increase their production by the bone marrow as a result of stimulation of its decay products of erythrocytes and reinforced maturation erythroblasts in the bone marrow.
Thus, we can assume that changing picture peripheral blood is able to reflect the changes that occur in the body of an athlete in response to physical activity. Thus about his fitness to perform the load can be judged by the degree of changes in these indicators. However, as mentioned above, the value of indicators of the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin depends on the ratio OCA and CGO, since any changes to any of them they will significantly change. One of the first who reported an increase BCC under the influence of physical activity in humans, were E. Schneider, L. Havens (1915). J. Barcroft (1925) in animal experiments have established a presence in the spleen depot blood, where it enters the blood stream during physical work. However, as for evaluation of parameters of peripheral blood necessary to know not so much BCC, how many values OCA and CGO, it is necessary to briefly dwell on the latter changes.