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Physiological changes of blood during exercise

The greatest number of studies on the effect of exercise on peripheral blood was devoted to the study of cells. W. Winternitz (1893), E. Willebrand's (1903) set the appearance leukocytosis after muscle activity. To explain this was made a few assumptions. According to one of them, the increase in the number of cells due to thickening of the blood, occurring partly due to increased sweating, but mostly due to the transition of the liquid portion of plasma in the working muscles. Consider also that this is a consequence of strengthening the cardiac activity and accelerate blood circulation, which leads to the appearance in blood parietal cells, and leaching of leukocytes from the internal organs in the blood stream.
E. Grawitz (1910) was first called leukocytosis, coming after physical exertion, myogenic leukocytosis. He believed that leukocytosis occurs due to intoxication of an organism products of an exchange of substances, in particular protein, and the increase in the number of cells contributes to the disposal of these products. One evidence of this situation was that the rate of increase in the number of cells depends on the power.
The first researcher who installed regularities of changes in the number of leukocytes under the direct influence of physical loads, was A. P. Egorov (1926). He first gave the qualitative and quantitative characteristic changes of cells and has allocated 3 phase myogenic leukocytosis. 1st phase (lymphocytic) occurs after a relatively small. It is characterized by insignificant leukocytosis - (10... 12)h/l, a decrease in the relative number of neutrophilia, absolute and relative increase in the number of lymphocytes and a relative decrease in the number of eozinofilia. 2nd phase (neutrophilic) appears after a relatively large. It is characterized by a large increase in the number of leukocytes (16... 18) x109/l compared with the 1st phase, the sharp increase in the number of neutrophilia left-shift, the decrease in the number of lymphocytes and eosinophilia. 3rd phase (intoxication) flows on a 2 types: regenerative and degenerative. In regenerative type is a significant increase in the number of leukocytes - up (20... 50 X 109/l, increasing the number of neutrophilia left-shift, the decrease in the number of lymphocytes (1 %), the complete disappearance of eozinofilia. Degenerative type is characterized by the same changes in morphological composition, as regenerative, but with less marked leukocytosis (10... 15) X 109/l, with a more dramatic shift of neutrophils to the left, absolute limfo - and eosinopenia and the appearance of degenerative forms. Intoxication phase myogenic leukocytosis indicates excess load.
The essence of occurrence of the 1st phase is a redistribution of leukocytes in blood stream and their leaching from the spleen. The reason for the 2nd and 3rd phases is to exit cells from bone marrow, which is proved by the appearance of young forms of white, and the appearance of degenerative forms of white. However, not always lymphocytic phase becomes neutrophilic. So, well-trained athletes even after heavy loads such a transition not observed. This indicates a relatively high fitness athlete to perform load. Strengthening blood as bone marrow as a consequence of physical activity was confirmed Century A. Ivanov et al. (1950), established the strengthening leikopoaiza with skiers after the run.
Thus, the appearance in the peripheral blood lymphocyte phase myogenic leukocytosis in response to significant load is a positive prognostic sign high functional condition of the sportsman, and on the contrary, the emergence of neutrophilic or intoxication phase after a relatively small load indicates its lack of preparedness to do the work. At the same time no changes in response to physical activity relative quantity of formed elements in leukocyte formula should be considered either as a symptom of poor human adaptation to physical loads, or excessive physical strain for a particular individual.