Pathological changes of blood

The question of the possible pathological changes of blood under the influence of sports training received little attention. However, in the literature there is a description of the so-called sports anemia. The term "sports anemia" suggested Mr.. Yoshimura et al. (1964) to denote the observed them in athletes condition characterized by a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin 10 %, a change of the membranes of red blood cells, an increase in blood reticulocytes and gipohloremia. These changes detected after several weeks of training, allowed the authors to suggest that anemia occurs due to excessive destruction of red blood cells. Another cause of anemia in athletes, according to the authors, may be poor nutrition. The examination of two groups of athletes carrying out in a long time, Bicycle stress load, has allowed to establish that the persons of the 1st group that received 1-1,5 g of protein per 1 kg of body weight, determined "sports anemia". With the consumption of 2 g of protein and more per 1 kg of body weight (athletes 2nd group) anemia were not found. These data demonstrate the necessity of using in the diet athletes sufficient amount of protein needed for the regeneration of red blood cells that are destroyed under the influence of intensive sports training.
Anemia in athletes described by other authors. So, that is Heilmann et al. (1978) found runners at long distances after a distance of 100 km reducing the number of hemoglobin and haptoglobin by 50 %, which indicates the strengthening of intravascular hemolysis.
In some cases there is a manifestation of latent forms of the disease. This is indicated by N. Godal and N. Refsum (1979), observing the development of anemia caused by hereditary spherocytosis 3 athletes. According to these authors, with whom it is impossible not to agree, sports training, helps to identify the individuals with the tendency to reduce the amount of hemoglobin various hereditary blood diseases.
Isolated cases of blood disorders in athletes described in Russian literature. However, they are not a consequence of the impact of sports training (hypochromic anaemia different Genesis, lakopenia, etc.
You should think that rational training should not in itself be a cause of anemia. So, we have, together with M. S. Dotsenko, studies have been conducted in the lifespan of red blood cells in 9 healthy athletes. The research was conducted using autoritratto marked SG, with the regular athletic training. The obtained data revealed no significant differences in elimination half-life of sodium chromate in athletes and not involved in sports, that testifies to absence of shortening the lifespan of red blood cells in athletes at the correctly organized the training process.
In the literature there is evidence of development opportunities in athletes under the influence of excessive loads of DIC. In the pathogenesis of DIC syndrome dominated education in the bloodstream thrombin (thrombinemia) and the depletion as hemocoagulation capacity and mechanisms that prevent clotting of blood. In the process of development of acute DIC syndrome should distinguish the following stages: I stage - hypercoagulation and aggregation of platelets; II stage - the growth of coagulopathy, and thrombocytopenia; stage III - deep hypocoagulation; IV stage - restoration or complications. To complications should include the blockade of microcirculation in organs and their subsequent degeneration and dysfunction, acute renal failure, etc.
For increased bleeding runners at long distances indicate F. Halvorsen et al. (1986). It should be assumed that these athletes bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract occurred due to the development of haemorrhagic syndrome (syndrome ice), coming in gipokoagulie phase.
However, it should be emphasized that the development of DIC syndrome in athletes occurs only when a combination of factors (excessive physical activity, adverse weather conditions and exhaustion of compensatory mechanisms blood system).
Suspected in athletes on diseases of white blood necessary to consider that found among athletes quantitative and qualitative changes of leukocytes may be due to the excessive exercise.
Our analysis of individual case histories athletes with blood diseases, were treated in the clinic of faculty therapy 1-St medical Institute them. after academician I. P. Pavlov showed that in all cases sports training was not the cause of the disease.
Thus, it is obvious that the rational sports training must not adversely affect the blood of athletes, but, on the contrary, promotes the development of adaptive mechanisms of hemopoiesis. As observed by a number of authors of a reduced number of red blood cells and hemoglobin in the blood of athletes, as mentioned above, the correct assessment of such changes can be carried out only with the simultaneous study of Pei and the total quantity of hemoglobin, which is indicated and So Bunch (1980).
According to our data, the number of elite athletes are relatively low hematocrit and hemoglobin, which on average respectively 0,41 and 8.2 mmol/L. These values of parameters, at first sight, small. However, calculating OCA and the total quantity of hemoglobin per 1 kg of body weight has allowed to establish that they are 30 % more than those not involved in sports. This once again underlines the necessity of taking into account OCA and total amount of hemoglobin in case of appearance of athletes signs of anemia according to the study of the peripheral blood.