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Physiological changes of the blood system at rest

First work dedicated to the study of the state of the blood system in athletes, refer to the end of the last century. In these and subsequent studies have investigated the peripheral blood changes that occur as under the effect of acute exercise, and because of the systematic sports activities.
The effects of systematic workout in the number of leukocytes was studied by many authors, and examines not only quantitative, but also qualitative changes. In the majority of studies examining this issue, it is shown that the content of cells under the influence of systematic sports training does not change. However, there is information about reducing the number of cells that can be seen as the result of negative impact of sports training. Some authors believe that this reaction is characteristic not very promising athletes.
In the study of leukocyte formula in athletes all authors pay attention to the increase in the number of lymphocytes. Speaking about the signs of a high level of functional condition of sportsmen, A. P. Egorov (1935) indicated that changes in leukocyte alone is to increase the number of lymphocytes and eosinophilia. This was confirmed by the works of E. Drawing and M. Chirkina (1931), Was the Mgebrishvili et al. (1959), Zh. I. Karpova, et al. (1987). In relation to the other elements of leukocyte most authors have expressed the unanimous opinion that their number is not changed.
As for the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin in the peripheral blood, A. N. Krestovnikov (1951), J. Gun (1959), V. I. Kuzmin (1975) and others celebrate its increase. According to J. Gun, this is due to the excitation of erythropoiesis, called hypoxia, resulting in athletes with exercise and oxygen debt after graduation. Another explanation for the increase in the number of red blood cells proposed O. F. Kokaya (1963), which believes that it is associated with a decrease in the body of an athlete amount of water.
At the same time in the literature there are data about the decrease in the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin in the peripheral blood in comparison with not involved in sports. So, O. I. Imelik (1969) found a decrease in the number of erythrocytes with swimmers and volleyball players, which, however, was not accompanied by a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin. On the other hand, E. L. Kuzmin (1965), R. G. Naumenko (1975), R. Lindemann et al. (1978) observed in athletes reduction of hemoglobin without reducing the number of red blood cells and is associated with the influence of strenuous exercise.
The influence of sports specialization on the amount of hemoglobin investigated in Yu. I. Tsygankova (1955) and 3. 3. Shakirova (1978). They found that his lower content in 1 l of blood was in athletes, training quality and endurance, and they explain this by increased destruction of red blood cells and the lack of synthesis of hemoglobin. The nature of physical activity also affects the number of red blood cells. So, the sportsmen of cyclic sports more than acyclic.
As for ESR, then, according to the majority of authors systematic sports training does not change. Thus, the literary data indicate pronounced impact workout on the peripheral blood, and that on the basis of their changes can be judged on functional fitness athletes.
Our research peripheral blood has allowed to establish that the number of red blood cells, white blood cells and hemoglobin in them the same as we are not involved in sports (table. 16). For leukocyte formula is typical, as pointed out by other authors, limfotsitoz while reducing some other indicators leukocyte formula.
However, a number of athletes, training, mainly, the quality of endurance, we identified a tendency to radiation.

Table 16. The peripheral blood in athletes and persons not involved in sports (M±m) *
The blood counts Floor Athletes [Petrov, Yu. A., 1980] M-211, W-70 Not involved in sports (on centuries Sokolov and I. A. Grobovoy, 1972) M-425, W-375
Erythrocytes, x1012/l

Hemoglobin, mmol/l

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mm/h

Leukocytes, x109/l
Basophilia, %
Eozinofilia, %
Neutrophilia:
stab, %
segmented, %
Lymphocytes, %
Monocytes, %
M
W
M
W
M
W








4,735±0,0223
4,245±0,0391
9,3±0,046
8,07±0,058
6,8±0,41
11,2±0,7
6,578± 0,0934
0,3±0,016
2,7±0,15

1,5±0,07
58,5±0,58
33,2±0,6
3,8±0,14
4,7±0,0175
4,179±0,147
9,24+0,026
7,94±0,029
6,0±0,21
10,0±0,3
6,487±0,058
0,5±0,008
3,0±0,075

3,5±0,11
58,0±0,31
28,5±0,3
6,0±0,1
* The number of leukocytes and leukocytic formula for men and women is the same.