Water system

There are decentralized and centralized water supply. Currently, more often used centralized system - water supply.
Water supply is a system of facilities, extracting water, put her cleaning, disinfection and delivering water to the population (Fig. 14).

scheme of water supply
Fig. 14. The approximate scheme of water supply:
1 - the water body; 2 - intake pipes and coastal well; 3 - pump station 1 lift; 4 - water treatment facilities; 5 - clear water reservoirs; 6 - pump station 2nd ascent; 7 - piping; 8 - the water tower; 9 - distributing network; 10 - the place of consumption.

To power water use most of the river. The location of water intake on the river must be above sources of river pollution. The depth of the river at the intake of water should be not less than 2.5 m Suction pipes located at least 1 m above the seabed and not less than 1 m from the surface of the water. On intake pipe water enters coastal foster the well, where piglets pumps first rise, which supply water to the treatment plant, then the water is disinfected, after which it enters the tank of clean water. From the reservoir of clean water pumps second lift water is fed into the water tower and then to the network.
Open water bodies used for centralized water supply, in varying degrees, are polluted by various drains, so practically necessary for purification and disinfection of water.
In decentralized water supply water is delivered to the place of consumption in different containers. During the transport of water in this way there is a risk of pollution and contamination. In centralized water supply with the help of a number of structures is served by a network of pipes directly to the place of consumption with water station.
The main source of water in the decentralized system of water supply wells are - mine and tubular. The quality of well water depends on the choice of the aquifer and well.
Mine wells at the correct device give good water. You must make sure that the place for the well was not filled thawed and rain waters, located above the possible sources of pollution and defended from the buildings at a distance of not less than 20-30 meters of Water will be taken from the 2-3rd aquifer, if he lies no deeper than 30 meters
To prevent the infiltration of surface water, the walls of the well are made from waterproof materials (concrete, brick, or arrange an earthen castle. To do this around the well remove the soil with a width of 50 cm and a depth of 100 to 150 cm and the formed space fill rammed oily clay. To prevent penetration of contaminants through the "mouth" should be such that the walls of the well were above the earth's surface 60-80 cm From the walls of the well satisfied with the slope of a width of 2-3 m, covered with asphalt or gravel. On the frame are doing the canopy, the mouth of the well is covered with a lid. The bottom of the well strewn with gravel thickness of 15-20 cm (Fig. 15). The area around the well in the radius of 5 meters it is hedged. The rise of water is better to make the pump. If the rise is "crane" or "collar", you need to have a public bucket, which excludes the use of individual buckets, and consequently, and accidental pollution. Near the well should be set to the bench for the buckets. At the well we can't let the livestock watering and washing of linen.

mine wells
Fig. 15. Mine wells

Before using a new well, and when cleaning up old (at least 1-2 times a year) well should be cleaned and disinfected. This removes debris like from a well and the surrounding area, water is pumped to the bottom. Then the walls of the frame abundantly irrigated by 3-5% bleach solution, fill the pit with water to the initial level add such amount of bleach to, calculated on the dry weight of it was 300-400 g on 1 m3 of water and mix. The time of water contact with chlorine should be 6-8 hours Pereplanirovana water pumped to the disappearance of the smell of chlorine, after which the well is put into service.
To tubular wells are the so-called Abyssinian and drilling.
Melodramatic, or Abyssinian, well composed of 6 polutoradyuymovy pipes, drill, filter and pump. The advantage of this well is that it is closed and not available for accidental contamination. To prevent water pollution around the well also make clay castle. Melodramatic well takes away water at a depth of 7-10 m (Fig. 16).

tubular well with pump column
Fig. 16. Tubular well with a pump column.

Glubochitskaya, or drilling, wells are arranged with the help of rotary or percussion drilling drilling rigs. To prevent the shelling of the walls in drilling, well put casing pipes with a diameter decreases as deepening. These wells provide water rise from the deep, secure horizons by means of a pump. They are often used for water supply.
When using for the purposes of the water of the spring (in rural areas) should be arranged his spring - construction for collecting water (Fig. 17). Water outlet carried thick walls (brick, concrete, wood and other) and close the top. To prevent it contact with spring water, surface water, doing discharge channels, arrange an earthen castle and the tiling. To prevent the raising of the water in the reservoir above known level (if it does not get in the water or pump) arrange at this level for a relaxing flowing water perelivnuju a pipe. In order to avoid water pollution doors and hatches, capping structures are locked, all the structures wall fence and water are probably further away from damming.

the damming of the downward spring
Fig. 17. The damming of the downward spring. Top, bottom, covered with pebbles, below - the spring with a wooden frame.