Fusel oil

Fusel oil - by-products of alcohol fermentation, having oily texture and possess toxic properties.
They are a mixture of saturated fatty alcohols including aldehydes, acids, esters, furfural and other poisonous products, which are formed from amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and others), members of the starchy or sugary foods in the process of alcoholic fermentation.
The density of fusel oils with temperature of 20 degrees is equal to 0,83-0.84 g/cm3. They are light yellow or red-brown color, have an unpleasant odor and irritate the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. The most toxic effects on the body have the highest amyl alcohols (amyl, isoamyl), which together with furfural up to 50% of fusel oils.
Various factions of fusel oils, obtained by fractional distillation, used in perfumery and pharmaceutical industries for the manufacture of solvents, synthetic aromatic substances and medicines. The admission inside 0.5 g of fusel oil causes headache, a feeling of bleeding, stomach pain, irritation of the mucous membrane, inhibition of vital centers (breathing and sosudodwigatelny), a sharp widening of the blood vessels of the brain, dizziness, vomiting, loss of consciousness, swelling of the lungs. Fusel oil slowly oxidized in the body. Even small amounts of fusel oils can cause headache, weakness, watery eyes, sneezing, convulsive cough, spasm of the glottis, cyanosis, salivation, nausea, vomiting, acute tracheobronchitis. Aid for poisoning fusel oils is gastric lavage with a 2% solution of sodium bicarbonate, intravenous 10.0 ml of 10% solution of calcium chloride and 40% glucose. Besides, the appointment of codeine or of dionine and compulsory prevention of pulmonary edema. Cm. also Poisoning.