Scarlet fever

In the past, scarlet fever was one of the most dangerous childhood infections and inflicted serious damage to the health of children. Accompanied by frequent complications, it often led to the development of prolonged or chronic diseases - heart disease, kidney, ears and so on, the death Rate from scarlet fever before the war was high. For the last decades in connection with the widespread use of antibiotics, the improvement of other treatments, as well as improvement of physical development and the General strengthening of an organism of the child, the nature of scarlet fever has changed dramatically. It ceased to be terrible and often fatal infection.
In most cases, it flows like a lung disease that is rarely accompanied by serious complications. Mortality from scarlet fever has dropped to an all time low and became extremely rare.
However, the incidence of scarlet fever is still high. She now plays an important role in the formation of chronic tonsillitis in the development of rheumatic fever; although rare, but she can result in severe damage of the heart, kidneys and other organs. Therefore it is impossible to weaken attention to the struggle with this infection. Need to know how to fight it, how to minimize the damage crippling.
Scarlet fever is caused by a microbe called Streptococcus. Under the microscope it looks in the form located chain of small balls (cocci). Scarletinthesky Streptococcus has the ability to provide strong bacterial poison.
Infection with scarlet fever occurs from a sick person, who with the nasal and pharyngeal mucus discharges the agent in the environment. Even when modern active treatment the patient is contagious for some time and after the complete disappearance of symptoms (up on the 21st and 22nd day from the moment of its beginning). The greatest danger to others, he is in the first 10 days. If recovering frequent complications (for example, purulent inflammation of the ear) or inflammatory condition of the throat and nasal gain popularity it can be particularly long. Widespread and till this time among the population idea about the peeling skin, often seen in convalescents after scarlet fever in children as a measure of infectiousness is ungrounded.
The source of the infection can be not only the patients with acute symptoms of scarlet fever, but also those in which it occurs in very light, erased form. Such patients often do not seek medical assistance, or scarlet fever have not recognized correctly. So they, being isolated, represent a serious danger to others. Finally, the infection can occur and healthy carriers skarlatines Streptococcus.
Transmission of infection to susceptible people is mainly airborne at a relatively close distance from the patient (several meters). Much less the infection can occur through various items that were used or which were close to the patient (underwear, clothes, utensils, toys, books, furniture and others).
Susceptibility to scarlet fever is greatest among children and preschool children; students fall ill less frequently, less frequently scarlet fever occurs in adults. Reduced susceptibility to scarlet fever in older children and adults because they have already been infected in the first years of life. Some of them were ill typical scarlet fever, others have moved it to the unrecognized very mild form or in the form, almost not manifested any signs. Both those, and others as a result of interaction with the causative organism has acquired immunity to the disease.
Latent period of scarlet fever continues 2-7 days; sometimes he can be delayed a little.
The disease starts acutely: temperature rises rapidly, you may receive General malaise, sore throat when swallowing. One of the most common initial symptoms of the disease - vomiting, sometimes repeatedly. When viewed throat patient detected bright redness, and sometimes white or yellowish deposits on the tonsils (angina), swollen submandibular lymph nodes. Already at first, at least on the second day of the disease on all skin appear red or pink rash - small, poppy seed, densely arranged spots. It is often stated skin itch.
All signs of the disease are kept 3-5 days, and then gradually disappear. By the end of the first or early second week appears peeling skin, especially expressed on the palms and soles.
By severity scarlet fever has a great variety. Pronounced intoxication, often observed in patients with scarlet fever in the past, manifests a very high temperature, impaired consciousness, sometimes delirium, convulsions and loss of heart function. There have been numerous and severe changes in the shed - angina with extensive off-white raids. Such severe currently have become rare. Now scarlet fever is more common with easy for without severe intoxication. In some cases, specific symptoms (rashes, fever and so forth) expressed very weak or absent (erased form). In the absence of such important features as rash, scarlet fever can be taken as usual sore throat.
Among the complications of scarlet fever need to specify the following: inflammation of the submandibular and cervical lymph nodes, sometimes with purulent fusion of them (lymphadenitis), inflammation of the middle ear (otitis media), inflammation of the kidneys (nephritis), the defeat of the heart muscle and others in recent years with proper care and treatment of complications of scarlet fever are relatively rare and occur favorably.
In the treatment of the sick with scarlet fever above all there should be in bed (at least 5-6 days), care and supervision of a physician. With the purpose of influence on the agent prescribed penicillin and other antibiotics that prevent the development of complications and accelerate the release of the body from Streptococcus.
Complete treatment light of scarlet fever can be achieved only if the content of the patient at home. The question of the need of placement in a hospital is decided by the doctor. In the hospital treatment need serious cases and children living in unfavorable conditions, in homes, where there are children, not ill with scarlet fever.
As with other childhood infections, airborne, drastic measure of struggle with scarlet fever can only be mass immunization. However, to date, highly efficient and received General recognition of the vaccine scarlet fever is not created. Research in this direction continues.
Currently struggle with scarlet fever is based on the General measures of prevention and epidemic control activities in endemic foci.
Each patient must be isolated in a hospital or at home. At home isolation of the patient, if possible, should be placed in a separate room, freeing it from unnecessary conditions and subjects. Patient care is provided by one or two family members in compliance with the relevant rules of prevention. Isolation in hospitals and at home is not less than 10 days; if necessary, in the opinion of a doctor, this period is extended. Children, recovered after scarlet fever, day nurseries, kindergartens, the first two classes of the school is allowed after an additional 12-day period, i.e. not earlier than within 22 days after illness onset.
If having contact with sick children not previously been ill with scarlet fever, they are not allowed in the nursery, kindergartens, the first two classes of the school within 7 days from the moment of disconnection with the patient. For other children, and adults who work in children's institutions, medical supervision is established for the same term with the purpose of early detection of possible diseases with scarlet fever.
All these measures are not acting radically on the incidence of scarlet fever can significantly reduce its spread and reduce the damage caused crippling.