Skull

Skull - the skeleton of the head (figure 4-7). Divided into brain and facial (visceral) skull. In the brain, the skull has a cavity, which is located inside the brain.
Facial skull is a skeleton of the person, the initial gastrointestinal tubes and respiratory tract. Both departments skull consist of separate bones connected by a motionless except for the lower jaw, connected by a joint movably with the temporal bones.
To the brain in the skull are frontal, two parietal, occipital, wedge-shaped, two temporal and partially ethmoid bone. It allocate the roof, or arch, and the skull base. As part of the arch - flat bones (the parietal and frontal and occipital and temporal scales bones) with external and internal plates compact matter, between which is the spongy bone substance (diploma). The bones of the skull roof seamed. In the lower part of the brain skull - base of the skull is large (occipital) hole, connecting the skull cavity with recessed channel, and the hole for passing of vessels and nerves. Side parts of the skull base are the pyramids of the temporal bone that contains the relevant departments of the organ of hearing and balance. Distinguish between the inner and outer surface of the skull base. The inner surface is divided into front, middle and posterior cranial fossa, which is where the different parts of the brain. The Central part of the middle cranial fossa is the Turkish saddle, which is the pituitary gland (see). On the outer surface of the skull base on the sides of the great occipital foramen are two occipital condyle bones involved in the formation atlantization joint.
Facial skull is the front to the lower part of the skull. A large part of it is formed by the upper and lower jaw (see). The upper jaw is a pair bone, which is located inside pneumatic maxillary (maxillary) sinus. The lower jaw is connected with the temporal bones through temporomandibular joints. To the front of the skull also include cheek, nose, tear, the Palatine bones, the lower nasal turbinates, Coulter and partially ethmoid bone. They form a wall sockets (see), nasal cavity (see the Nose) and solid sky (see). In the nasal cavity open pneumatic sphenoid sinus, frontal, maxillary bones and ethmoid cells (see Accessory sinuses of the nose). On the side of the skull are temporal, apex and the wing-palatal holes; the latter communicates with the cavity of the skull, eye cavity, nasal and oral cavities.structure skull man in pictures

The skull of a man. Fig. 4. Front view. Fig. 5. Side view. Fig. 6. The inner surface of the skull base. Fig. 7. The outer surface of the skull base: 1 - frontal bone (os frontale); 2 - parietal bone (os parietale); 3 - the sphenoid bone (os sphenoidale); 4 - lacrimal bone (os lacrimale); 5 - zygomatic bone (os zygomaticum); 6 - the upper jaw (maxilla); 7 - the lower jaw (mandibula); 8 - opener (vomer); 9 - the lower nasal Concha (concha nasalis inf.); 10 - ethmoid bone (os ethmoidale); 11 - nasal bone (os nasale); 12 - temporal bone (os temporale); 13 - occipital bone (os occipitale); 14 - ethmoid bone (os palatinum).


By the time of birth process of ossification of the skull have not yet over, and newborns in the joints of the bones of the skull roof preserved areas of connective tissue - fontanels. Facial skull of the newborn compared with cerebral less developed than that of an adult. Senile skull is characterized by a partial reduction of the facial skull in connection with the falling of teeth; his bones are more delicate and fragile, in the field of cerebral cranium is often observed overgrowing seams. Women's skull several smaller, bumps and roughness it is expressed less, than at men. Even among individuals of the same age and sex of the skull vary in shape, size and ratio of brain and facial departments. Allocate dolichocephalic (long head), medievalesque (srednevekovye) and brachycephalics (dolphins) skull depending on the ratio of the length and width of the skull (dlinnoe-latitude index in the anthropometry).

The skull (cranium) - bone skeleton head. The skull (printing. PL.) conventionally divided into brain and facial departments, which consist of bones, interconnected still using seams and incontrato, except for the lower jaw, connected by joints mobile.
One major difference skull of a child from the skull of an adult is the ratio between the value of the brain and facial departments: in childhood facial skull is significantly less than that of an adult, age-facial skull increases mainly in height. The peculiarity of the skull of the newborn are lots membranous structure, called springs; the largest of them front, or frontal, overgrown to 2 years of a child's life. Women's skull is slightly smaller than the male; thinner bones and places of attachment of muscles less pronounced. In the brain Department distinguish the roof, the basis and the skull cavity that contains the brain. To the bones of the neurocranium skull include the following unpaired bone - occipital (os occipitale), frontal (os frontale), major, or wedge [os sphenoidale (in the body of the last two have sinus)], lattice (os ethmoidale); steam rooms - parietal (os parietale) and temporal (os temporale). The bones of the face of the Department include: unpaired bones of the lower jaw (mandibula) share (vomer), the hyoid bone (os hyoideum) and dual - upper jaw (maxilla), palatal (os palatinum), Malar (os zygomaticum), the lower nasal sink (concha nasalis inf.), tear (os lacrimale) and nasal (os nasale). The top of the skull smooth outside, the inside has a number of furrows - track adjacent vessels and venous sinuses Dura.
Internal skull base is divided into front, middle and posterior cranial fossa. The border between the front and the average are small wings (alae minores) sphenoid bone, between the middle and the back - back Turcica (dorsum sellae) and the top edge of the rocky parts (margo superior partis petrosae) of the temporal bone. The Central part of the front of the pit take perforated plate (lamina cribrosa) and cockscomb (crista galli) ethmoid bone. On both sides of the plate are ophthalmic part (partes orbitales) frontal bone, which is the roof of the sockets. Middle cranial pit symmetrically divided by the Turkish saddle (sella turcica) on two grooves, the bottom of each form a large wing of the sphenoid bone (ala major), scales of the temporal bone (squama temporalis) and the front surface of the rocky parts (facies anterior partis petrosae). On the sides of the body sphenoid bone pass the furrows of internal carotid arteries (sulcus caroticus). Outward from the furrows are deposited three holes - awned, oval and round (foramen spinosum, the foramen ovale, foramen rotundum). Between big and small wings formed the upper orbital slot (fissura orbitalis sup.) and at the root of small wings - optic channel (canalis opticus), a leading, as is the crack into the cavity of the eye socket. In the center of the bottom rear of the pit is foramen (foramen occipitale), the lateral edges of which lies the channel hypoglossal nerve (canalis p. hypoglossi)and outwards from it - jugular hole (foramen jugulare); posterior to the last lies furrow S-shaped sinus (sulcus sinus sigmoidei - the continuation of transversal grooves sinus. On the sides of the occipital holes on the outer surface of the occipital bone are Misaki (condyli occipitales), outwards from them are the mastoid bone (processus mastoidei), anterior to the last - subulate processes (processus styloidei). Between the mastoid and styloid process is stylomastoid opening (foramen stylomastoideum), which is the external opening of the channel of the facial nerve. Posterior to the styloid process are jugular hole and the pit (foramen et fossa jugulares), and in front of her outer hole in the carotid canal (canalis carotis). In the area of the rocky peaks of the parts are the inner opening of the carotid channels, in front of which is directed downward pterygoid the processes of the sphenoid bone (processus pterygoidei). Internal records of these processes limit the rear vents of the nasal cavity - goany.
Facial region of the skull is a bone structure of primary gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. It also deposited the peripheral sections of the visual, olfactory and gustatory analyzers. From the bones of the face of the Department of the skull, the most important being the maxillary bone and jaw. First take part in education of the sockets (orbitae), nasal cavity (cavum nasi) and together with the lower jaw - mouth (cavum oris). In the body of the maxillary bone is maxillary (maxillary) sinus (sinus maxillaris), soamsawali middle nasal passage. The nasal bones and nose cut maxillary bones (incisurae nasales) limit pear-shaped hole (apertura piriformis), leading to the nasal cavity; Palatine processes (processus palatini) together with horizontal slices (laminae horizontals) Palatine bones form the hard palate (palatum durum, osseum). Alveolar processes (processus alveolares) upper and lower jaws contain tooth cell (alveolae dentales). In old age due to tooth loss occurs smoothing of alveolar process that leads to a slight decrease in the size of the front of the Department of the skull.