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Deaths from alcohol abuse and alcoholism

Alcohol abuse is known to be conducive to the development of somatic and psychic diseases, and directly or indirectly, is one of the major causes of mortality. According to the who, alcoholism and related diseases as a cause of death second only to cardiovascular diseases and malignant neoplasms. Only directly from alcoholism in the United States die every year about 100 thousand, in England - more than 40 thousand [Ghukasyan, A., 1968], in France-18 thousand people [Dobrovolsky Yu A., 1968]. According to O. Geneke (1968), mortality from alcohol per 100 000 population in 1965 was in France 11,9; in SFRY - 2; USA-1,4; Sweden - 0,9; Canada-1; Hungary of-0.7; Poland -0,3; Czechoslovakia -0,2.
Many scientists [Strelchuk I. Century, 1973; Baryot A., 1957; Lederman M. S., 1958; Steudler F., 1974, and others] have noted a direct relationship between the rate of deaths from alcoholic diseases and alcohol consumption per capita. In particular, the French Explorer F. Steudler (1974) traces the direct correlation between mortality from liver cirrhosis (table. 11) and consumption of alcohol per capita for selected countries of the world.
The number of deaths from liver cirrhosis in France increased from 2763 cases in 1946 to 17 463 in 19.67 g, the Number of patients coming to psychiatric hospitals concerning alcoholism, increased from 6704 in 1952 to 25 937 in 1966
Provides statistical data on increased deaths from alcoholic cirrhosis in Sweden, Norway, Finland and Denmark. Deaths from alcoholic cirrhosis in these countries in recent years has increased by 3-6 times. J. Chevallier (1968) noted that mortality among the patients with complications of alcoholism is treated in the therapeutic hospital, amounted to 11.6%. Most often, death from hepatic coma. The average age of deceased women 56 years, men - 60 years.
From cirrhosis of the liver, caused by the excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, in 1976 died 3140 persons, which is 14,8 per 100 000 population.
Statistical survey, organized by U.S. insurance companies, showed that the average mortality rate systematically drinkers almost 2 times higher than teetotallers. Alcohol abuse, according to the American authors, reduces life expectancy By about 20 years. Not by accident in the capitalist countries, some insurance companies refuse to insure the lives of patients with alcoholism or set them high insurance premiums.
Alcohol abuse is associated suicide, which in a number of Western countries one of the most important causes of death. Suicide among those suffering from alcoholism, 10 times more often than among the entire population. Thus, according to an Australian researcher J. Santamaria (1972), on the grounds of alcoholism takes place from 17 to 22.4% of all suicide attempts. According to J. Moser (1974), to 32.8% of those suffering from alcoholism, and different countries commit suicide attempts. In the United States annually 15 million people commit suicide, 25 thousand people die from diseases that are a direct result of alcohol.
The American magazine US News and World Reporb in the article "the Growth of alcoholism in the United States and new measures against it" (1973, № 10) cites evidence that alcohol abuse is the cause of half of all accidents on transport fatalities, half of all homicides, the fourth part of suicides; 80 thousand deaths per year are directly or indirectly connected with alcoholism.
According to the Bureau of forensic medical examination, Kuibyshev, death from poisoning ethyl alcohol is 7.6% of all cases of violent death and who died suddenly.
According to R. Costello, S. Schneider (1974), the main causes of mortality in patients with alcoholism are cardiovascular diseases, accidents, acute alcohol intoxication and cirrhosis of the liver. The authors found that the largest proportion of mortality due to disease of alcoholism, for the first 5-6 years of its development. Violent death and death from acute alcohol intoxication is more often the lot of young people, and death from cardiovascular diseases and cirrhosis is older.
The work of G. Lowe, Hodges, A. Johnson (1974) shows that in the state of Georgia in 12.9 cases per 100 000 population death associated with alcohol consumption. At 67.8% of the deceased death was directly related to alcoholism and alcohol psychosis and cirrhosis. All the dead were observed high concentration of alcohol in the blood.
W. Schmidt, J. Sint (1972) on the basis of epidemiological studies of the causes of death in patients with alcoholism come to the conclusion that the main reason leading to death are cancer of the respiratory and digestive systems, pneumonia, liver cirrhosis, suicidal tendencies. These reasons make up 2/3 of all deaths. In the remaining third at the first place cardiac pathology. Mortality from sclerotic, and degenerative changes in muscles of the heart in patients with alcoholism was 2 times higher than among the total population (the authors explain this by alcohol intoxication, a special emotional state, long-Smoking, lack of sufficient supply of alcoholics). In the etiology of cancer, according to the authors, plays a role not so much alcohol intoxication as the abuse of Smoking. Deaths from alcohol abuse is highest among young people. The authors distinguish between acute and chronic effects of alcohol, leading to death. In acute alcohol intoxication death occurs as a result of accident, suicide, alcohol psychosis, pneumonia; chronic alcohol intoxication - from cancer of the larynx, pharynx, esophagus, alcoholic psychosis, heart disease, pneumonia, liver cirrhosis.