The smoke formed during combustion gases (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, etc.), ash, soot, and resinous substances. The composition of the smoke coming in the air depends on the type of fuel, the combustion method and device furnaces. The ejection of ash and smoke into the atmosphere is greater than the higher ash content of fuel. The most high ash content have Slantsy (50%) and low-grade brown coal (40%). Lowest ash in high quality coal - anthracite coal.
With the smoke in the air come as sulphur dioxide, the amount of which depends on the content of sulphur in fuels, and carbon monoxide, which is a product of incomplete combustion of carbonaceous substances. Large amounts of sulfur dioxide received by the combustion of oil, especially mnogomernoi, however, the main source of sulphur dioxide are coal, peat and slates.
Smoke is the most common pollutant of atmospheric air and can have adverse effects on living conditions and health of the population. With soot contains resinous substances, which include carcinogenic compounds. Sulphur dioxide irritating effect on the upper respiratory tract of humans and detrimental effect on the vegetation, sometimes destroying large green areas. Carbon monoxide (see) is a strong poison to humans and animals. Therefore the protection of the air of the populated areas from pollution by smoke coming from the emissions of power plants, boiler houses, when the internal combustion engines, is an important task. The main activities that reduce the content of harmful substances in smoke are: combustion of high-quality fuel and translation of all furnaces are gas flaring; rationalization of the combustion process; cleaning of flue gases from ash and harmful impurities and others (see Sanitary protection of atmospheric air).