Social security

Social security in the USSR is an integer part of the state social-economic program of increasing the welfare of the Soviet people. Social security covers a field needs of sick, disabled and elderly, families and children. Social security funds are the state social insurance budget, extra funding from the state and contributions of collective farms. The right of citizens to social security is guaranteed by the Constitution of the USSR. Social security is carried out in the USSR at the expense of public funds, consumption. The social security costs represent a significant portion of these funds.
In tsarist Russia social security was applied only to a small part of industrial workers, its level was extremely low, the peasants did not receive any assistance. Wide social security for all workers was one of the requirements of the proletariat in its struggle for political power. The outstanding role in the development of these requirements, in formation and development of the entire Soviet system of social security belongs Century I. Lenin. In the first years of Soviet power C. I. Lenin signed more than 30 decrees on the issues of social security of the workers, peasants, soldiers and their families. The state's responsibility for the organization and implementation of social security of workers, a high level - these are the main principles contained in the first decrees of the Soviet state. Organized on the specified principles of the Soviet social security is fundamentally different from the bourgeois social security systems, which is only an attempt to solve the problem of providing the disabled, the elderly who have lost their jobs mainly due to the workers themselves. Despite the increased exploitation, the growth of profits of the monopolies, increasing taxes levied by the government on wages, contributions of workers are in most capitalist countries the main source of revenue in funds intended for social assistance.
The main types of social security in the USSR are: ensuring workers, employees, farmers, various types of benefits (for temporary disability, women, allowances for pregnancy and childbirth, and so on); pension provision of persons with disabilities, the elderly, and families that lost the breadwinner; maintenance of disabled and elderly persons in special boarding schools; vocational training of persons with disabilities and providing them with adequate health work; provision of prostheses, orthopedic products, baby carriages, including motor and invalids of war is also a car with manual operation (see Rehabilitation, Employment). One of the types of social security is providing families with many children and single mothers monthly and lump-sum allowances.
Pensions for old age are assigned to men upon reaching 60 and for women 55 years and with work experience respectively 25 and 20 years. Some categories of workers and employees old-age pension is set before 10 or 5 years (for example, worked in underground work, work with harmful working conditions, hot workshops, on the other works with difficult working conditions, having many children mothers who have raised 5 or more children). In many capitalist countries, the retirement age is significantly higher than in the USSR. He is 60, 65 years and over, while women pensions are determined usually in the same age as men.
In the event of permanent or long-term disability (disability) in the USSR established the disability pension (see), in case of death of the breadwinner - pension survivor's pension to disabled family members of the deceased person (children under 16 years, and students - up to 18 years old, a widow aged over 55 years and some others). If the disability or death of the breadwinner has come a result of industrial injury, occupational disease or injuries (contusion, diseases obtained during the military service, pension regardless of the length of work experience (military service). In other cases, to obtain a disability pension needed some work experience; its length varies from 1 year to 20 years for men and up to 15 years for women. The pension size is, as a rule, in percentage of the earnings, it cannot be lower than the lowest and up to the maximum amount provided for the respective type of pension.
Pension provision in the USSR is conducted in accordance with the USSR Law "On state pensions" from July, 14, 1956 and the USSR Law "On pension and benefits to members of collective farms" of July 15, 1964
The directives of the XXIV Congress of the CPSU on the five-year development plan of national economy of the USSR in 1971 - 1975 envisaged further improvement of the social security. From July 1, 1971, members of collective farms and their families equal in respect of the calculation of pensions to workers and their families, significantly increased the minimum old-age pension, increased minimum pensions for disabled guests - members of the collective and to the families of farmers who have lost their breadwinners.
Until the end of the 9th five-year plan envisages, in addition, to increase the size of the disability pension, survivor's pension and benefit in some cases of temporary disability; introduce child benefits to families with low income per family member; to increase the number of paid days to care for a sick child, to establish allowances for pregnancy and childbirth for all women in the amount of their full salary and to give them some other benefits; to increase the number of nursing homes for the disabled and elderly, to improve the security of the disabled vehicles and orthopaedic products.
The functions of social security in the USSR to perform the social security authorities and trade unions which are directly controlled by the social insurance.
Cm. the healthcare Legislation, Social insurance.