Socio-economic basis

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According to economists labour-intensive forms of the use of the labour force, characteristic of a developed socialist production, are to enhance the functioning of living labor on the basis of introduction of more efficient equipment, constant improvement of professional skill of workers, improvement of work organization and production. In these conditions, living labor to become more productive. "If the production of gross social product valued at RUB 1 million in 1960 was spent labour 267 employees, in 1970 - 150, in 1975, only 113 workers"1. In other words, the transition of workers older workers ages in the sphere of manual and unskilled labor due to unprotected mass of leading modern professions to somewhat reduced (15-25%) opportunities of their body is socially and economically more flawed than the extra cost of providing longer and more effective period of professional activity of an employee in enterprises that meet the latest achievements of scientific-technical progress. This measure is especially timely that the decision of the XXV Congress of the CPSU provided to ensure the increase of effectiveness and intensification of social production is mainly due to the growth of labour productivity and efficient use of labor resources: substantial reductions in industry the share of manual labour, the accelerated pace of complex mechanization and automation of production processes, especially of mechanization of auxiliary and ancillary works, provide the total increase in the production at the existing enterprises in the same or a lesser number of employees. All this is adamant the imperative of time and requires consideration for possibilities of employment of resources. After all, the economic feasibility of any mechanized labour compared to manual currently not subject to doubt. It is only such forms of mechanization and automation of production that do not require the capacity and potential of persons mainly young age.
In order to avoid "utopia" in the requirement of immediate widespread fixtures of all types of modern labour to the middle capabilities of workers, taking into account the speed and nature of aging, you should distinguish between the forms of technical and organizational adjustment that can be used separately and comprehensively.
Technical forms of adaptation provide for such mechanization and automation in which output parameters, addressed to the employee, correspond to the level of normal functioning of the body without the effects of fatigue at a specified working hours. This plays a huge role ergonomics, which relies heavily on data physiology of labour, anthropology, engineering psychology at creation of optimal systems man - machine and improvement of technological processes, control panels of tools. In cases where technical solution does not work conditions without fatigue, taken organizational measures on regulating the number and placement of the staff, vnutricerepnogo mode of work and rest.
The important peculiarity of the scientific-technical revolution is to replace workers who owns one speciality, generalists. The material basis of formation of generalists are complex mechanization and automation that requires comprehensive development of abilities of workers and strengthening the training databases for constant updating of General and professional knowledge of employees. We can assume that this pattern is of great importance for a longer maintain a professional capacity in the conditions of modern production, although the findings obtained earlier at the medical-social examination of people 80 years and older, as well as in the analysis of censuses, suggest otherwise. Professional and labour durability showed artisans - glaziers, carpenters, dressers, furriers, Vasiliki, carpenters, harness-makers and others who remained in their professions in the course of his long life. Obviously, other results to be expected and should not, as a highly specialized professionalism, characteristic of production in the past, could only lead to this result.

1 Kosygin, A. N. On the state plan for the development of the national economy of the USSR in 1971-1975 years and on the State plan developed national economy of the USSR in 1972. M., 1971, S. 11-12.