Social insurance

Social insurance legalized by the Constitution of the USSR, where among the basic rights of the citizens of our country enshrines the right to maintenance in old age and in case of illness and disability. This right is ensured by a wide development of social insurance of workers and employees at state expense, free medical care workers, provision of workers with a wide network of health resorts.
Our country has created a unified system of social insurance, which covers all types of security. Social insurance is financed through compulsory contributions from enterprises and institutions from the wages of workers and employees no deductions are not made. Thus, all the expenses for social insurance of the workers of our country are vested in the state, which fully covers them.
State social insurance in our country is carried out by professional unions - the most mass workers ' organization. The main types of social insurance are:
a) payment of benefits for temporary incapacity (illness, injury, pregnancy and childbirth, child care, and so on);
b) cultural-consumer services (vouchers for sanatorium-resort therapy, night dispensaries, health food, rest houses, tourist bases, mountaineering camps).
From the Fund of social insurance of the children of workers and employees are sent to these camps, children's health camps, carried out various forms of out-of-school care for children.
Workers, employees and collective farmers receive all kinds of social security, and it is a significant addition to their basic salary. Payment to farmers for social insurance is carried out from the centralized Fund.
The main types of social security are pensions for disability, old age, families of deceased workers and employees, the funeral benefit, etc.
In the countries of the capital almost no social insurance, and where it is, there are only one or two types. The introduction of social insurance barely won working class some capitalist countries, but it does not cover all workers and employees. Additionally missing some kinds of social insurance (sickness, disability, and so on). The social benefits is very low, their issuance is limited to a small period of time. The age of people reaching retirement age is significantly older than in the USSR.
For example, in the USA there is an insurance that only covers old-age and unemployment. In case of receiving serious injuries workers dismissed without any benefits.
In our country the most common form of social insurance benefits are at disease with temporary loss of ability to work. While the worker and the employee is issued a certificate of incapacity. Various help from doctors cannot replace sick leave and not accepted.
For intentionally incorrect issuance or incorrect filling of the certificate of incapacity medical workers liable to disciplinary and sometimes criminally liable. All responsibility for the performance of the examination of ability to work and delivery, storage and accounting of sick leave is imposed on the chief doctor of a medical institution.
Due to the fact that in our country, health care workers are organized not only at the place of residence but also at the place of work (large industrial enterprises), sick leave may be issued and in fact, and in another institution, depending on where turned sick. The doctor has the right to issue the certificate of incapacity for up to 6 days. In case of prolongation of the term of a leaf
Disability doctor directs the patient to the medical consultation Commission (CWC).
Usually, this Commission consists of the attending physician and head of the relevant Department.
The task of the CWC enters the examination to determine whether the treatment of patients with obscure and complex diagnoses; for special treatment in other cities; the complaints of the patients on the wrong actions of medical workers in treatment and issuance of sick leave. During the examination of ability to work, if necessary, CWC extends sheet, previously issued by the doctor.
Medical consulting Commission considers issues of employment patients, i.e., translating them easier work.
In a small medical institutions located in rural areas, where there is one doctor, he allowed himself to decide on the issuance of disability certificate and the extension of its validity period.
In case of loss of sick of this document shall be issued a duplicate provided that issued the beginning sick leave is not paid. This must be verified by a certificate from the place of work of the patient.
Most of feldshers, midwives and nurses the right of self-issuance of disability certificate is not provided. With the release of a sick or injured person from the work they give him a certificate indicating the diagnosis, the day and hour of recourse. On the basis of this document doctor should contact the patient may issue him a certificate of incapacity. However, some independently working paramedics and nurses, especially in the conditions of the village, by the order of the oblast (regional) Department of health may be allowed independent issuance of sick leave for a period of 3 days with subsequent display of the patient to the doctor.
Issues of determination of permanent disability in our country are engaged in special medical-labor expert Commission (VTEK). The tasks of VTEC is above all the presence in a disability (disability), determining the causes and extent of disability; in accordance with the health status of a disabled person for a set of possible types of labour. There are three groups of disability. The first group identify individuals with the greatest disease in need of help. Disability is installed individually for each patient. Depending on the nature of the disease and the age of the disabled person he set disabilities without a deadline, or specify a time after which it is subject to re-examination.
Part of VTEC, which is created at the district (city) hospitals, include doctors in three main specialties, as well as representatives of the Department of social welfare and trade Union organizations.