Space medicine

Space medicine - the branch of medicine that studies the influence of space flight factors on health and human performance. In addition, space medicine justified medical requirements for systems and control of spacecraft; develops methods of selection, preparation of cosmonauts and activities for the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by flight and rescue of astronauts.
Space medicine is closely connected with the cosmic biology (see), aviation medicine, physiology, psychology, Cybernetics, and other disciplines.
Research in the field of space medicine are conducted on the ground, during flights of aircraft and spacecraft. The most important contribution to space medicine are medico-biological data obtained during the execution of programs of space research in the Soviet Union and the United States. It should be emphasized special importance of the first orbital flight (Y. A. Gagarin), flight woman-cosmonaut (centuries Tereshkova-the first exit into space (A. A. Leonov) and to the lunar surface (N. Armstrong, E. Aldrin), flight orbital stations "Salyut" (G. I. Dobrovolsky, V. N. Volkov, V. I. Patsaev).
At the cosmonaut during space flight, there are a number of factors: cosmic radiation, acceleration, gravity, noise, vibration, artificial atmosphere, especially food and water supply, isolation, lack of exercise, psycho-emotional factors, and so on
Currently available data on the degree of their influence on the human body and practical recommendations on prevention of negative consequences. Creating pressurized cabins shielded cosmonaut from influence external factors. Active against noise and vibration. Using the optimal regime of the day, the system of training and improvement of nutrition progress has been made in reducing the adverse impact of individual factors associated with prolonged stay of the person in the closed space of the spacecraft. There are also certain achievements in preventing the harmful impact of the acceleration observed in withdrawal of the spacecraft into orbit and its descent. Developed a number of preventive and protective measures (rational position, modeling the chair, anti-g suits, using some of pharmacological preparations, trainings). However, further research is needed, especially on the issue of re-adaptation of the cosmonaut's body to terrestrial environment, after a long stay in weightlessness is the most important factor space flight, which lowers the (partial zero gravity) or disappears completely stress of body tissue.
Study the effects of weightlessness lasts up to 24 hours has shown that people generally satisfactory. Some observed sensory, motor and autonomic disorders with reversible (illusory feeling of flying upside down, reducing the precision finely coordinated movements and muscle strength, fluctuations in heart rate, decreased blood pressure, and so on). In some cases it was noted the development of the space form of motion sickness, clinical picture is the same as normal. In addition, it is proved that in conditions of weightlessness is leaching from bone machine salts, especially calcium, and total dehydration.
A particular place in space medicine is paid to the problem of radiation treatment that take place in flight (cosmic rays, x-ray radiation of the Sun's radiation belts, and so on). To ensure radiation safety of space flights with account of radiation situation on the route of flight, including solar activity, use drugs and other remedies.
Prevention of adverse impact of a complex of factors acting in a space flight, and first of all of weightlessness, is carried out in four directions: improvement of spacecraft; careful selection and training of crew members; the organization of power supply mode of work and rest; the use of drugs.