Spazmofiliya (synonym children tetany) - pathological condition characterized by increase neuromuscular irritability and a tendency to clonic seizures. Occurs mainly in children from 3 months to 2 years. Boys suffer more often.
Spazmofiliya caused by a malfunction in the body of the child calcium-phosphorus metabolism (the fall of calcium in the blood). There are hidden (latent) and explicit (initial) form spazmofilii. Hidden spazmofiliya sometimes becomes apparent if the child receives a small dose of vitamin D; disease is a definite connection with rickets (see).
Hidden spazmofiliya characterized by the appearance of the child disturbing sleep, motor restlessness, fear, tachycardia, increased sweating, and various disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. During the examination of the child reveals a number of common characteristics in the form of symptoms of Huasteca, trusso, Lust and Erba.
Symptom of Huasteca (front phenomenon) - when this light cheek with a finger between the zygomatic arch and the angle of the mouth appears lightning-fast twitch of the mouth, nose and eyelids. Symptom trusso - in case of compression of the neurovascular bundle on his shoulder is twitching of muscles of the hand and it takes the position of the hand of the midwife". The phenomenon Lust - effleurage below the head of the fibula is quick disposal and slight flexion of the foot. Symptom Erba, or increased galvanic neuromuscular excitability, - when opened, the cathode current strength in the 3-2 and even 1 mA irritation of a nerve in the elbow bend is accompanied by the reduction of muscles of the forearm and flexion of the fingers.
Explicit spazmofiliya manifests itself in the form of laryngospasm - spasm of the glottis, the upcoming sometimes while screaming and crying of the child; laryngospasm is manifested by shortness of breath (breath), sometimes stop breathing; during the day you may experience recurring attacks. Less frequent are carpopedal spasm ("midwife"), seizures and convulsions of the facial muscles. The most severe form spazmofilii proceeds in the form of eclampsia and manifests General clonic seizures with loss of consciousness. There are spasmodic contraction of the heart muscle with the possible cardiac arrest and sudden death. Outside attacks remains high neuromuscular excitability, positive symptoms of Huasteca, trusso, Lust. The explicit form spazmofilii can last from a few days to 2-3 weeks.
The diagnosis is established on the basis of these symptoms and biochemical data. It is important to reveal a hidden form spazmofilii.
Forecast for early detection and proper treatment is favorable.
Treatment. When explicit spazmofilii infants appoint tea diet for 8-12 hours, then fed breast milk, sour mixtures, kefir. Children on artificial feeding - donor milk. Older children appoint vegetable purees, tea and biscuits, fruit juices, vitamins. When convulsions appoint an enema of 1-2% solution of chloral hydrate in the amount of 20-50 ml (temperature of the solution 40-42 degrees) or intramuscularly 25% solution of magnesium sulfate at the rate of 0.2 ml per 1 kg of body weight. When a hidden form spazmofilii used chloral hydrate inside in the form of 1-2% solution 2-3 times a day, 1 tea or dessert spoon depending on age. For the normalization of calcium in the blood designate a 10% solution of calcium chloride inside of tea or dessert spoon or calcium gluconate 2-3 g 3-4 times a day. After 3-4 days after administration of calcium with the disappearance tetanii spend protivorahiticescoe treatment. Prevention - see Rickets.