Spinal cord injury

Damage to the spinal cord can occur when the spinal injury at different levels. They are isolated or in combination with closed fractures and dislocations of the spine.
Concussion of the spinal cord clinically there is rapid development of light paralysis of the extremities, and infringement of sensitivity below a level of damage, delay urination and defecation. These symptoms usually regress within 1-3 weeks after the injury.
Injury to the spinal cord is accompanied by swelling at injured and bleeding in the brain. Therefore, immediately after the injury below the level of injury and develop paresis, and paralysis of limbs with loss of tendon reflexes, violations of the sensitivity and function of the pelvic organs. Often appear trophic disturbances in the form of pressure sores, swelling of extremities, join phenomena cystitis and ascending infection, develops urosepsis.
To prevent damage to the spine produce x-rays in anteroposterior and lateral projections.
Compression of the spinal cord may develop gradually in the displacement of bone fragments, education epidural (lying outwards from hard shell) hematoma, Scarring growths. It is manifested by the increase of motor and sensory disorders below the level of injury. Long compression can cause permanent morphological changes in the brain tissue. To clarify the level and degree of compression of the spinal cord produce a lumbar puncture (see) with samples for mobility intrathecal spinal spaces and x-ray examination with the use of contrast agents (MRI) or the introduction of air (pneumonology).
When closed fractures and dislocations of the spine can be partial or complete damage to the spinal cord bone fragments or displaced by the body of the vertebra. If partial, half the destruction of the spinal cord syndrome may develop the brown-séquard (see the brown-séquard syndrome). Full break the spinal cord is manifested by the lack of movement in limbs and all kinds of sensitivity below a break spinal cord. The patient does not feel the urge to urination and defecation.
Treatment. In all cases of spinal cord injury patient should be stationgreat. First aid for any traumatic injuries of the spinal cord and spine consists of fixation of the patient on the shield for the stabilization of the spine in order to avoid unnecessary damage to the spinal cord during transport. Before transport, it is advisable to introduce intramuscularly painkillers (promedol 2% solution 2 ml), to lower the urine catheter, with injuries of the cervical and vermehrung departments of the spinal cord to monitor cardiovascular activity and respiration (if necessary subcutaneously 20% solution of camphor 2 ml, caffeine-benzoate sodium 10% solution of 1 ml). When concussion of the spinal cord patient is placed on a Board in compliance with strict bed rest, prescribe painkillers, vitamins. When the delay urination bladder empty catheter 2-3 times a day with subsequent washing or establish a special system for constant draining and irrigation of the bladder. Delay chair - cleansing enema. For the prevention of bedsores sick after every 2-3 hours gently turn in bed, wipe the body and limbs with camphor spirit. After a few days under the control of the neurologist prescribed remedial gymnastics, massage.
When the injury of the spinal cord in the case of prolonged absence restore the function of the spinal cord possible surgery to remove scar growths on the spot areas of hemorrhage and softening of the spinal cord.
If spinal cord compression surgical treatment. Early detection and elimination of causes compression of the spinal cord usually provides complete recovery of lost functions of the spinal cord.
Fractures and dislocations of the spine is made of surgical intervention: remove blood clots, set out with a twisted vertebra, remove bone fragments.