Ethyl alcohol

Ethyl alcohol (Spiritus aethylicus; synonym alcohol; formula WITH2N5IT). The pharmacological properties applies to narcotic substances. However, as the dose of ethyl alcohol, cause narcosis, very close to a dose at which is paralysis of vital centers, as the drug is not used. By acting on the brain cortex, ethyl alcohol causing typical alcoholic excitement, connected with the weakening of braking. In high doses causes the weakening of the excitatory processes in the cortex and other parts of the Central nervous system. Ethyl alcohol skin expands the blood vessels, which is accompanied by a feeling of heat, but the heat transfer increases. Usually ethyl alcohol increases the secretion of the stomach, but in concentrations higher than 8-10%, it reduces digestive activity of gastric juice. In the body ethyl alcohol is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water with the release of energy. Ethyl alcohol is part of spirits (see), with regular use, which may develop an addiction (see Alcoholism), requires special treatment.
In medical practice ethyl alcohol used primarily external as irritating, antiseptic and sealing the epidermis tool. For compresses usually use 40% solution. As a means of antisepsis used 70% solution, as a tanning agent (to process hand surgeon, to prevent bedsores , etc.,) - 95% ethanol. In combat ethyl alcohol was widely used in low doses to prevent shock. Acute intoxication ethanol is necessary to do the gastric lavage, to warm the patient (the blanket warmers), enter caffeine-benzoate sodium (2 ml of 10% solution subcutaneously) or other physiological antagonist ethanol - korazol, kordiamin, fenamin.

Ethyl alcohol (synonym: alcohol, ethanol), formula WITH2N5IT is one of the alcohols. Contained in drinks produced by fermentation.
Transparent liquid; temperature instrumentation 78,37°, temperature PL - 114,6°, d204 = 0,7893. Water, glycerin, ether mixed in all relationships. Ordinary rectified spirit contains 95,5% alcohol and about 4.5% of water. This mixture is transferred without changes in composition when 78,15 degrees (azeotrope blend).
Absolute, i.e., anhydrous, ethyl alcohol produced by linking chemical present in the rectified water. In engineering and pharmacy the concentration of alcohol is expressed not in weight, and volume% (degrees). The concentration of alcohol is determined by spirometer, a device that is similar to the density (see).
Get ethyl alcohol in different ways: 1) biochemistry (by fermentation); 2) chemical (by synthesis).
Obtaining of ethyl alcohol by fermentation is carried out with the participation of a number of enzymes. As feedstock take grape sugar - glucose - or cheaper substances - starch contained in potatoes and cereals. Currently developed technical methods for producing ethanol from non-food materials - wood. Cellulose, the main component of the wood that is subjected to a sulphuric acid hydrolysis under pressure, resulting in the formation of glucose, which is fermented with the formation of ethyl alcohol.
Among chemical methods of producing ethanol most important is its production of acetylene. In recent years, the most important obtaining ethanol from ethylene contained in exhaust gases during cracking.
Ethyl alcohol is inherent in all reactions of alcohols (see).
Ethyl alcohol is used in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, for the synthesis of rubber, and also for acetic acid, diethyl ether and other substances. A large amount of ethanol used in pharmacy for making alcoholic liquors medicinal substances. To make ethanol, used for technical purposes, unfit for drinking, it denatured (denatured alcohol), i.e., added to it methyl alcohol, fusel oil, pyridine bases, and tint.
With the ability to collapse proteins ethyl alcohol is used as a disinfectant for storage anatomical preparations; in medicine ethyl alcohol is used for friction and other purposes. Ethyl alcohol in small quantities acts ophanage, in high doses causes the condition, close to the anesthesia, sometimes ending in death.
Ethyl alcohol as a drug (Spiritus aethylicus). When resorptive effect ethyl alcohol is anaesthesia. As the drug ethyl alcohol is characterized by low latitude, narcotic, and caused them anesthesia - the presence of severe stage of excitation and regulation. These reasons will completely exclude the use of ethanol for narcosis, and drug status in case of receiving large quantities of alcohol is seen as acute intoxication ethanol. A state of euphoria, expressed analgesia, coming after alcohol intake, and its ability steadfastly to raise blood pressure cause an anti-shock properties of ethanol. Therefore it is part of a series protivosokovh liquids (see). The ingestion of ethanol reflex dilates blood vessels of the skin that is subjective is expressed in the feeling of heat, but the heat transfer increases. Also reflex ethyl alcohol stimulates the activity of the glands of the gastrointestinal tract and at the same time weakens the digestive ability of the gastric and intestinal juice. Alcohol is well absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and helps absorption of other substances, as is a good solvent and, in addition, cause expansion of blood vessels the mucosa. In the body to 99% imposed ethanol is oxidized and only 1% is excreted by the kidneys and through the lungs in an unmodified form. The combustion of ethanol produces a large quantity of energy (1 year gives 7.1 kcal)that can be used in some cases to prevent the disintegration of fats and carbohydrates. Ethyl alcohol is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, so even a single dose drug doses does not leave any consequences. At the regular use of ethanol to him may develop an addiction - alcoholism (see), requires special treatment. The local application of ethyl alcohol irritating effect. In 70% and 95% concentrations koaguliruet protein, what is the basis for tanning effect of alcohol. E. S. has antiseptic properties; as an antiseptic used to process hand surgeon, surgical field of surgical instruments. Produced ethyl alcohol 95% concentration. During storage, consider the volatility and rating.

  Ethyl alcohol in forensic against. Examination of alcoholic intoxication spend from living persons
In addition to the medical examination, make a preliminary qualitative sample A. M. Rappoport (see Alcoholism) from exhaled air. In case of positive samples take blood and urine for the quantitative determination of alcohol (better in the first 5 hours, but not later than one day from the moment of acceptance of alcohol). Results of the quantitative study of ethyl alcohol allow you to set the time of reception and the number taken alcohol, and also to judge the approximate degree of intoxication. According to I. Century Accumulated (1959), the alcohol concentration of 0.05 to 0.2 PPT - within the physiological norm; at concentrations of 0.2-0.5 PPT surveyed almost sober; the 0.5-1 PPT - light degree of intoxication; 1-2,5 PPT - average degree of intoxication; more than 3 PPT - severe poisoning with the possibility of death.
When forensic medical study of the corpse to exclude or to determine that the cause of death is poisoning ethyl alcohol. The young person is actually more likely to die from poisoning ethyl alcohol (at reception of large numbers), and among people of middle and old age, death often comes as a result of disorders of cardiac activity when taking E. S. in doses considerably less lethal. During the autopsy of any distinctive signs death from poisoning E. C. no. Note the plethora of internal organs, swelling of the lungs, brain and meninges; ekhimozy under the pleura, the epicardial and conjunctiva; bladder is often stretched urine. Cavities and organs of the corpse exude a strong smell of alcohol. The greatest importance for the establishment of poisoning E. C. as the cause of death has a quantitative study of the E. C. in the blood, organs and urine. For quantitative studies of blood is taken from the femoral vein. The results are judged on the time and amount received ethyl alcohol, the degree of intoxication, and sometimes the elapsed time since the adoption of the E. C. prior to death. It must be borne in mind that the E. C. gradually disappears as taken from the material, and from a dead body (the number of E. S. corpse per day may be reduced by 4-6%). To evaluate the results of determining the number of the E. C. in the decomposed corpses have with caution, as data may be unreliable.