Alcohol (alcoholic) drinks

Alcohol (alcoholic) drinks - drinks containing alcohol - wine ethyl alcohol.
In the production of alcoholic beverages is one of the most important representatives limit monatomic alcohols - ethanol (WITH2N5IT). Sources of ethanol are starchy and sugary foods rich in carbohydrates, sugar beets, potatoes, wheat, rye, corn, barley, oats, millet, rice and various vegetables and fruits. Of these products after the fermentation, distillation and purification get rectified ethyl alcohol, which strength is expressed in volumetric percent (about. %) or degrees (the number of milliliters of ethanol in 100 ml of liquid). For the percentage of ethanol alcoholic beverages are divided into strong (alcohol, vodka, distillery products, rum, brandy, whisky, less strong wine and low alcohol (beer, Braga).
Alcohol for drinking, produced in small amounts only to some regions of the Far North, is a 95% mixture rectified ethyl alcohol with softened water, subjected to filtering and endurance.
Vodka - 40-56% mixture rectified ethyl alcohol with softened water, subjected to special treatment activated carbon filtration , etc. To improve the taste of certain types of vodka are different additives (sugar, honey, vanilla and others).
Liqueur-vodka products is produced by mixing (blending) a variety of juices, fruit drinks, herbal tea-rectified alcohol and sugar syrup, water, and other products. Auxiliary material are organic acids (e.g. lemon)dissolved in alcohol essential oils (rose, anise, caraway), aromatic herbs, roots, bark, flowers, seeds and buds aromatic plants. The preparation of some alcoholic beverages add cognac, wine, dark beer, natural honey. From other alcoholic beverages alcoholic beverages are high in sugar, intensive aroma, color and taste.
Liqueurs are prepared on aromatic spirits and infusions of Attar of raw materials. They contain 30-45% alcohol and 32-50% sugar.
Brandy manufacture of alcoholized juice or fruit drinks. Part of them are about 30% natural fruit and berry juices, 18-20 % alcohol and 28-40% sugar. The name of brandy, you can determine which juice and fruit drink dominates the blend (raspberry, cherry, strawberry).
Brandy is produced by blending fruit juice or fruit drinks, aromatic alcohol, sugar syrup and water. Sometimes added solutions of essential oils, cognac, wine, citric acid. The fortress tinctures may be higher than 30 - 40% ("stark", "Zubrovka", "John", "Riga black balsam").
Rum is a strong alcoholic drink made from rum alcohol, which is derived from cane-sugar molasses or other products of the processing of sugar cane and matured in oak barrels for at least 4-6 years. Rum contains 45% alcohol, 2% sugar, has a soft, slightly burning taste and specific aroma and light brown with Golden hue. Used rum for cocktails, punches, liquors, confectionery.
Cognac, unlike other strong alcoholic drinks, is produced from ethyl alcohol, which is obtained by distillation of young wines. Specific taste and smell of cognac is reached by selection of wine stock, which serves as raw material for cognac alcohol and endurance term of cognac spirits aged in oak barrels. Cognacs are divided into ordinary, vintage and collection. Ordinary have the aging period is 3 to 5 years, the fortress 40-42%. Endurance term vintage cognacs from 6 to 15 years, the fortress 42-57%, sugar content of 0.7-2%. Collection cognacs differ from vintage to the fact that additionally aged in oak casks or barrels more than 5 years.
Grape and fruit wines receive as a result of alcoholic fermentation of grape juice or the juice of various fruits and berries. Depending on the varieties they contain from 9 to 20% alcohol and up to 20% of sugar. Furthermore, wine is rich in organic acids (tartaric, malic, citric), pectin and tannins, vitamins P, B1, B2, S. Sparkling wine - champagne - is a wine subjected to repeated fermentation in hermetic vessels for saturation by carbon dioxide.
From low-alcoholic beverages, the most widespread beer (see), Braga, honey drinks.
Braga is obtained from rye and barley malt or dried kvass, water, hops, sugar or honey. The fortress Braga 1,5-3%. Braga contains up to 10% of the extractive substances that are easily digestible carbohydrates, activating the processes of digestion.
Action of alcohol on the body depends fortress and the number of drink. Large quantities of alcohol harmful: depress the Central nervous system, especially the centers of respiration and cardiovascular, lowers muscular tone, narcoticyou center of heat production, increase heat loss, promote colds cause severe intoxication, etc. Systematic alcohol abuse leads to alcoholism (see).