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In physical education of children sport is of great importance. But when deciding on a special sports activities with the children need to consider the availability of those or other sports exercises for the child's body at different ages (the degree of development of the muscular system, coordination of movements, the functionality of the internal organs). In sports that do not have much physical strain or dominated by exercises for agility and flexibility (for example, diving, figure skating), sports initial training of children is already possible with 6-8 years. Sports in which speed-power voltage short-term (sprint, jumping and others) or intensive muscular work followed by periods of relative rest (as in sport games), you can start with about 10-13 years. Training of sports associated with prolonged physical stress (skiing and skating and others, ranging from small distances)and also require sufficient development of muscle strength (wrestling, heavy athletics), it is recommended to start with 14-16 years. In sporting activities with children it is necessary to pay special attention to General physical preparation and the sequence in increasing physical activity.
In Mature and even older ages sports have a beneficial effect on health. At this age most appropriate endurance exercise associated with muscular work, albeit for a relatively long time, but moderate in intensity (slow Jogging, swimming, skiing at low speed, volleyball, badminton). Conversely, such exercises as fast race (even for short distances), wrestling, lifting weights, many sports games, become unsustainable, because the body is not really doing the speed and power loads. Participation in any sporting event in adulthood places special demands on the body and must be physically well-trained people.
Sport is beneficial to health of women. Classes almost all kinds of sports are available and useful to women. The only exceptions are some of the sports and exercise that does not meet the opportunities of the female body (for example, wrestling, gymnastics on the bar and rings, some sports and others). The reduction of the burden for women in sports is achieved by reducing the weight of shells, the race distance. In the period of menstruation physical activity during sports lessons reduce, in competitions to participate is not recommended. After birth sports activities can be resumed in 4-6 months with permission of the doctor.
A necessary condition of correct choice of sport, nature and mode of sports is according to their state of health of the athlete. The correctness of the choice of the sport helps medical supervision (see).
The basis practice any sport - systematic training (see)enhancing the functional capacity of the organism and mastering the athlete techniques. An important condition for successful training - the correct mode to conditions of work and life of athlete. Regulation of loads during training along with medical supervision is also possible self-control - supervision of athletes for their well-being and by the simplest of studies (the measurement of heart rate, weight, spirometry).
Indicators proper training: a cheerful mood, good health, good sleep, good appetite, relatively fast recovery heart rate after exercise (20 - 40 minutes), the growth of sport achievements. When excessive load during class athlete suffers a long time passing heartbeat, fatigue, mood, sleep and appetite decrease, body weight falls, sports results do not improve or even drop (the state of overtraining).
An indispensable condition for sports - observance of rules of personal hygiene. Special importance body care: water treatments in the morning and after charging, mandatory warm shower after a workout, if possible - massage. Clothes for sports must be light, not constrain movements, well absorb sweat, to be breathable and, if necessary, well-protected from the winds and in winter from the cold, not too warm. Too light clothing in cold weather can cause injuries chilled muscles and ligaments in sharp movements of the athlete. Sports shoes should be, if possible, easy, and handy, well match the size of the feet. Shoes should be allowed to wear thick wool socks, don't press your toes. Clothes and footwear for sports should not be used routinely, it is necessary to maintain order.
For compensation increased in sports energy spending by the body calorie usual food ration should be increased by 500-2000 kcal (depending on intensity and duration of exercise). The food of the athlete shall be mixed, high-calorie, easy digesting. Unlike a normal diet, food for athletes should contain more protein and carbohydrates and is 2-3 times more vitamins. Every workout on an empty stomach irrational. The meal should be regular, preferably in the usual time. Do not take food later than 1-1,5 hours before exercise and later than 2-2,5 hours before the competition. After a training session before a meal, it is advisable 30-40 minutes to relax. The athlete must learn to observe strict drinking regime: not to drink during training and competitions, to quench their thirst, rinsing the mouth and throat or drinking 2-3 drink of water. Drink to the full thirst only after training or competition.