Aging and nutrition

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Last 10-15 years saw a fundamentally new approaches to understanding the development of the aging process. Recall that under the ageing currently understand natural growing, developing long before the onset of old age multicomponent biological process, which is characterized by specific features, inevitably leading to the restriction of adaptive opportunities of an organism. It is obvious that the process of aging is one of the stages of individual development of an organism of the animal and man. The process of aging is "and different levels of biological organization: molecular, molecular, cellular, systems, integral organism. However, at different levels of biological organization features of the development of ageing not repeat each other, and qualitatively different.
Of fundamental importance is a new idea that ageing should be seen as self-contradictory process in which extinction, infringement of metabolism and function are combined with the development of important adaptive mechanisms (centuries Frolkis, 1970). These views are especially important for building of the General principles of hygienic measures, for if in the process of ageing is not only the extinction of the exchange and functions, but also develop adaptation mechanisms, it is obvious that optimizing the impact and should be aimed largely at the activation of these adaptive mechanisms.
The big contribution to development problems in General are becoming study of molecular-genetic mechanisms of aging. The vast majority of researchers agree that the primary mechanisms of aging is associated with shifts in the genetic apparatus and on the basis of this secondary come shifts at different levels of life, body.
There is one important theoretical position, which has importance for the development of various branches of hygiene science. We are talking about a detailed and thorough study of the mechanisms of change of neurohumoral regulation during aging. It is known that when dealing organism with the environment their influence is great both in work and rest, and during the process of power. All this has a direct impact on the most intimate part of metabolism and body functions, mediated through a complex system of neurohumoral influences. These General theoretical principles is of particular importance for the scope of geragosian, which can be defined as gorodiatichi, or hygiene of nutrition of elderly and senile age.
Nutrition is a complex of physiological and biochemical process of utilizing a mixture of chemical compounds called food, and their transformation in the structural elements of the body and energy necessary for the implementation of physiological functions. Diet includes also a behavioural response, is aimed at obtaining food and its reception. In the works of A.: Pokrovsky (1966, 1976) and of employees of Institute of nutrition of the Academy of medical Sciences of the USSR formulated and incorporated modern vision of balanced nutrition. It is shown that the change of power can significantly affect the functional state of the organism and peculiarities of metabolism that nutrition is one of the most important preventive, means in the fight for health. Conversely, malnutrition often become the reason of serious pathological processes in the body.
The mechanisms of the influence of nutrition on the state of the human body, the numerous and diverse. First, this influence is carried out through the system of neurohumoral regulation on the cellular metabolism, secondly, daily and repeated interference power as a complex factor of chemical regulation in the metabolism leads to the change of the processes of generation of energy in the cell, protein biosynthesis. One of the largest representatives of Russian science: the biochemistry of nutrition A. A. Pokrovski (1974) showed that depending on the quantity and quality: the party of power can significantly change the biosynthesis of individual enzymes, the nature of their genetic induction and the processes of synthesis in the body.
Factor power, his regime aspects are essential in maintaining the functional state of gastrointestinal tract. Another I. P. Pavlov and his school have shown that changing the power, using various loads, can lead to the depletion of or to restore the functions of the glands of the gastrointestinal tract.