Stenosis - the narrowing of the lumen of any tubular body (larynx, trachea, esophagus, intestines, bronchus, vessel, duct), and physiological or created operational by holes (gastrointestinal fistula, atrioventricular hole, gastrostomy tube)obstructing the promotion or the withdrawal of the content.
There are stenosis congenital and acquired. Congenital stenosis are malformations (see) is a narrowing of the pulmonary trunk, the pylorus of the stomach in infants (see the pyloric stenosis). Acquired stenosis can be organic, developing due to tumors, inflammation or injury to the walls of the body and subsequent scarring, and functional (spasm of the muscles in the walls of the body). Long spasm results in thickening of the muscle and elastic fibers of the walls of the body and can cause organic stenosis. Cause stenosis may also be education, located outside of the body and causing the tumor (compression of the urethra enlarged prostate gland, compression of the trachea - thoracal goiter, esophagus - aortic aneurysm). Organic stenosis tubular bodies with narrow lumen (the ureter, ductless glands) are often called stricture.
Stenosis can be acute or chronic. Acute advanced stenosis accompanied by a more drastic violation of the functions of the authority. Stenosis of the larynx (see Cereals) causes shortness of breath until asphyxia (see), biliary tract stenosis causes hepatic colic with a sharp pain, vomiting, jaundice. In chronic stenosis gradual extension of the authority above narrowing place, accompanied anatomical and functional disorders. Stenosis of the ureter with difficulty outflow of urine leads to the expansion of the lumen him over the narrowing, the expansion of the renal pelvis, atrophy of kidney tissue with the termination of urination (see Hydronephrosis). Violation of patency of the lower section of the esophagus leads to expansion of the lumen him over the narrow spot, the stagnation of food, inflammation and swelling of the mucous membrane (esophagitis).
Treatment of stenosis is carried out taking into account its cause: stenosis, because of trauma, burn, or inflammation - bairovna (see), or operation, in the presence of a tumor - operation. In the initial stages of stenosis functional character is conservative treatment - antispastic (skin) means procaine blockade. When was wasting - surgical treatment.