Stokes collar

collar Stokes
Collar Stokes equations in a patient with tumors of the mediastinum.

Stokes collar - symptom characterized by edema and cyanosis of the neck (Fig.), the head, the blades and the upper extremities, and sometimes extension superficial veins chest. Collar Stokes equations arises in the result of the compression of the upper and ring hollow vein.
Collar Stokes is one of the most characteristic manifestations of the so-called mediastinal syndrome that occurs in acute and chronic mediastinitis, mediastinal emphysema, lymphosarcoma and benign tumors (more dermoid cyst, at least - lipoma, fibroma) mediastinum. Collar Stokes equations can be the result of the pathological process in the mediastinum: aneurism of the aorta, cancer, bronchus, pozitivnyj goiter, vpotnye pericarditis, a tumor of the thymus gland, the involvement of the lymph nodes in the process of lymphadenosis, mieloza or chlamydia. More rare causes - vices right heart, lung heart. The collar Stokes equations may be accompanied by other symptoms resulting from the compression of nerves and of the mediastinum (hoarseness, silent cough, stridor, anisocoria, dysphagia, and so on).