Forensic dentistry

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Wide involvement of scientific and expert activity of specialists dentists is a characteristic feature of modern development of forensic dentistry, undoubtedly expands its scientific horizons and improve their professional quality forensic dental examination.
At the outset of domestic judicial dentistry was outstanding Russian scientist, teacher and expert, head of Department of forensic medicine of Moscow University Professor P. A. Minakov. Under his leadership, dentist, I. Wilga wrote the first Russian thesis in forensic odontology, published in 1903 in Moscow under the name "About teeth in forensic against". In this work the author dwelled forensic medical examination of injured teeth, bite wounds, verification of identity of a personality in the teeth and fillings and dental prostheses. Were presented data about the definition of gender, age, profession on odontologijos characteristics, changing dental organs under the action of high temperature, and in the late cadaveric phenomena. A separate Chapter was devoted to the expert evaluation of professional defects of healing.
It is difficult to overestimate the importance of this work for formation and development of domestic forensic odontology and court dentistry. It reflected all the main issues, and for many years this has been the only guide to forensic doctors and dental surgeons and dentists involved in expert activity.
However, And. Wilga in the coverage of certain issues of forensic odontology made some erroneous conclusions, yielding to the influence of foreign did criminal-anthropological school. So, describing dental apparatus in mentally ill offenders in the writer's opinion about the "degenerate" signs, allegedly predetermine the people of these groups.
Forensic dentistry is the basis of forensic dental examination. This examination is a type of forensic medical examination, taking the same position with its such species as obstetric, venereal and other expertise, with the spread on it of applicable criminal and civil laws and regulations, rules, orders and instructions of the health authorities.
In accordance with the regulations on the production of forensic medical examination in the USSR (1952) forensic dental examination serves the purposes and tasks of the Soviet socialist justice, within their functions, rights and responsibilities should promote the improvement of treatment and preventive dental care to the population.
Materials research expert with the permission of the investigative and judicial authorities can be used in the interests of public health, contributing to the improvement of the organization and carrying out of preventive and curative dental care to the population, as well as the wider social hygiene to prevent industrial injuries, poisoning and other This is a fundamental difference Soviet forensic services from abroad, for the last limit their activities only by request of bodies of investigation and court.
According to senior 16 of the Law on criminal proceedings of the USSR and the corresponding articles of the criminal procedure codes (CPC) of the Union republics, and also the civil procedural legislation, the evidence in the case is any evidence that a particular law judicial and investigative authorities permit the challenges their questions (qualification actions as crimes, guilt, and others). Among the evidence along with the testimony of a witness, victim, suspect, and physical evidence, the records of investigative and judicial actions and other documents applies the expert's conclusion.
Expert, and in Anglo-American law competent witness is a person possessing special knowledge in science, engineering, arts and crafts. "As an expert may be caused by any person possessing necessary knowledge to issue its opinion" (article 78 of the code of criminal procedure of the RSFSR and the relevant articles in the criminal procedure code of the Union republics).