• Diseases of the foot
  • Stop - peripheral part of the lower limbs, which is the organ bearing the body and simultaneously performs the functions of leaf apparatus. The conditional border of the foot, separating it from the thigh, pass over the tops of the ankles. The foot has a complex anatomical structure. It distinguished the metatarsal, Tarsus and toes and two surfaces: plantar and back.structure stops

    Fig. 1. The bones of the foot: 1 - RAM; 2 - scaphoid: 3 - lateral wedge; 4 - intermediate wedge; 5 - medial wedge; 6 - the first metatarsal; 7 - phalanx of the thumb; 8 - cube-shaped bone; 9 - heel.
    Fig. 2. Muscles, ligaments and tendons in the back surface of the foot: 1 - top ligament that supports the extensor tendons; 2 - tendon long extensor of the thumb; 3 - tendon anterior tibial muscle; 4 - short extensor thumb; 5 - dorsal interosseous muscle; 6 - tendon long extensor of the fingers; 7 - a short extensor of fingers; 8 - bottom ligament that supports the extensor tendons.
    Fig. 3. Muscles, ligaments and tendons of the foot surface: 1 - tendon short flexor; 2 - worm-like muscles; 3 - tendon long flexor thumb; 4. short flexor thumb; 5 - short flexor; 6 - muscle of placing the thumb; 7-plantar aponeurosis; 8 - muscle outlet small finger; 9 - short flexor small finger.

    The skeleton of the foot form the 26 bones (Fig. 1)forming part of Tarsus, hocks and fingers. Located closer to the Shin, Tarsus consists of 7 bones: ankle, heel, scaphoid, cuboid and 3 of the sphenoid bone. The front bone of the Tarsus articulated 5 tubular bones hocks, heads of which are connected with phalanges. First finger has 2 phalanx, II-V fingers consist of 3 phalanges. On the bottom side at the base of the thumb has 2 additional (nesamovite) bones.
    Foot bones form numerous joints - ankle (see), the joints between the bones of Tarsus, the Tarsus-metatarsal (United into the joint of Lisfrank), milusheva, metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. The bones of the foot of the fortified by a large number of ligaments and form of longitudinal and transverse arches with convexity to the rear, providing a leaf function of the foot. Thanks to its anatomical structure of the foot soften the sharp stress on bones and joints of the lower extremities, pelvis, spine.
    Along with bundles large role in maintaining the structure of the arches of the foot belongs to the muscles of the foot (Fig. 2) and the tendons of muscles of the legs, is attached to the foot. On the rear foot are short extensor fingers and short extensor of the thumb. Above them are tendon anterior tibial muscle, long extensor of the thumb and long extensor of the fingers. Tendon these muscles have synovial vagina (see). Muscle soles are 3 groups. The internal group form the muscles that attach to the thumb (discharge causing short flexor of the thumb). The middle group consists of short flexor, square muscle soles, worm, and interosseous muscle. Outer band was short flexor and muscle, discharge V finger. On the bottom side of the foot and are attached to the bones tendon long flexor thumb, long flexor, posterior tibial, long and short peroneal muscles (Fig. 3).
    The muscles of the foot separated from each other fascial layers, which is a continuation of the fascia of the leg. Fascia the rear foot thin on the bottom side, it presents plantar aponeurosis and short fibers fused with the skin.
    The blood supply to the feet are due back artery feet, outer and inner plantar arteries. Vienna fall into superficial and deep veins of the leg. Lymph is in deep and surface vessels of the lymphatic vessels of the lower leg.
    Innervation of muscles and skin of the soles is carried out by branches of the tibial nerve, rear foot - surface and deep peroneal and subcutaneous nerves and continuation of a cutaneous nerve of the leg.
    Leather soles thick, coarse, devoid of hair and rich sweat glands. The skin of the back surface elastic, easily shifted, so if any inflammatory processes swelling appears on the rear foot.

    vessels and nerves of the feetVessels and nerves of the feet. Fig. 1. Back surface. Fig. 2. The plantar surface. Fig. 3. Cross-section through the distal section of Tarsus. Fig. 4. Cross-section through the metatarsal. 1 - n. saphenus (cut); 2 - v. saphena magna (cut); 3 - n. peroneus profundus; tendo m. tibialis ant.; 5 - Ty m. extensoris hallucis longi; 6 - a. et v. dorsales pedis; 7 - aa. tarsae mediales; 8 - m. extensor hallucis brevis; 9 - a. arcuata; 10 - mm. interossel dorsales; 11 - arcus venosus dorsalis pedis; 12 - aa. digitales dorsales proprii; 13 - aa. metatarseae dorsales; 14 - m. extensor digitorum brevis; 15 - m. peroneus tertius; 16 - a. tarsea lat.; 17 - tendines m. extensoris digitorum longi; 18 - a u extensorum inf.; 19 - a. et w. tibiales ant.; 20 - n. peroneus superficialis (cut); 21 - aponeurosis plantaris et m. flexor digitorum brevis (cut); 22 - a. et v. plantares lat.; 23 - n. plantaris lat.; 24 - m. quadratus plantae; 25 - caput obliquum m. adductoris hallucis; 26 - ramus superficialis n. plantaris lat.; 27 - ramus profundus n. plantaris lat.; 28 - arcus plantaris; 29 - caput transversum m. adductoris hallucis; 30 - aa. digitales plantares communes; 31 - aa. digitales plantares proprii; 32 - nn. digitales plantares proprii; 33 - nn. digitales plantares communes; 34 - m. flexor hallucis brevis; 35 - m. abductor hallucis; 36 - a. et v. plantares med.; 37 - n. plantaris med.; 38 - ossa metatarsalia; 39 - m. abductor digitl minimi et m, flexor digltl minimi; 40 - Ty m. peronei longi; 41 - tendo m. flexoris hallucis longi; 42 - m. lumbricalis; 43 - tendines mm. flexorum digitorum longi et brevis; 44 - os metatarsale I; 45 - ossa cuneiformia mediale, intermedium et laterale.