Streptomicine - a group of drugs active substance which is the antibiotic streptomycin formed radiant fungus Actinomyces globisporus streptomycini or other related organisms. In medical practice, use of streptomycin sulfate (Streptomycini sulfas) and potassium chloride complex streptomycin (Streptomycini et calcii chloridum). In addition, there are a number of derivatives of streptomycin with similar antibiotics and chemotherapeutic properties. These include: dihydrostreptomycin sulfate (Dihydrostreptomycini sulfas), pentamycin (Pantomycinum), dihydrostreptomycin ascorbate (Dihydrostreptomycini ascorbas), streptomycin (Streptodimycinum). On the basis of streptomycin created as a combination of drugs: pasomitsin (Pasomycinum) - paraaminosalicilovaya salt dihydrostreptomycin, streptolysin (Streptosaluzidum) - streptomiceta salt of saluted and streptomycin (Streptomycillinum) - a mixture of penicillin and streptomycin.
Streptomycin and its derivatives active against most gram, acid resistant and some grampolaugitionah bacteria, including penicillinonline options (Escherichia coli, Bacillus Friedlander, pathogens of dysentery, brucellosis, tularemia, plague, tuberculosis, whooping cough, staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, meningococci).
Streptomycin and its derivatives almost not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and are excreted with faeces in an unmodified form. Therefore, drugs administered streptomycin parenteral - intramuscularly, subcutaneously endolyumbalnoe (only potassium chloride complex).
The maximum concentration of streptomycin in the blood is determined in 1-2 hours after administration. The accumulation of large quantities occurs in the kidneys, lungs, muscles; much less in the brain, lymph glands and spleen. Inflammation of the meninges penetrates into the brain fluid. Passes through the placental barrier. In the body for about 1/3 of streptomycin is destroyed, the remainder is excreted in the urine. To maintain bacteriostatic concentration of streptomycin in the blood is enough to enter it at intervals of 12 hours.
Drugs streptomycin may be used for treatment of various diseases: infections of the gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract, peritonitis, abscesses of different localization, cholangitis, empiem, bacteremia, meningitis, endocarditis, laryngotracheitis, pneumonia, eye infections, anthrax, tularemia, plague, brucellosis, gonorrhea , and other infections caused by susceptible to streptomycin microorganisms. However, streptomycin and its derivatives are primarily used in the treatment of all forms of TB of the lungs, lymph nodes, oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi and intestines, urinary and genital organs, the serous membranes, bones, joints, eyes, skin (lupus), of the meninges and other Doses of streptomycin sulfate with intramuscular injection of 0.5 g to 1 g / day. Higher doses: single 1 g daily 2,
During treatment with streptomycin and its derivatives can sometimes occur toxic and allergic reactions (fever, dermatitis, skin rashes, itching, dizziness, headache, palpitations, albuminuria, hematuria), diarrhea, and with long-term use of disturbance of vestibular and hearing AIDS until the development of deafness. For removal and prevention of allergic reactions is used antihistamines, calcium supplements, corticosteroids, multivitamins. To prevent violations of hearing prescribe calcium Pantothenate 0.05-0.2 g 2-4 times a day. Drugs streptomycin used with caution in patients with a heightened sensitivity to it with organic defeat VIII pair cranial nerves, severe forms of hypertension, stenocardia, liver disease, disorders of the excretory function of the kidneys, soon after myocardial infarction. Not recommended to appoint streptomycin together with florimitsinom (Fiumicino) and kanamycin, as they have the same neurotoxic effects that and streptomycin.
All drugs streptomycin keep with care (list B), the temperature is not above 20 deg.