Briefly about the structure of the brain

Pages: 1 2 3

Before I start telling you about the successes of modern neurosurgery, you need to focus on some General issues of structure and activity of the human brain. About the brain, in other words - about the anatomy and physiology of Central nervous system, written tens of thousands of books and articles. And yet, despite the enormous achievements of the modern science, it will take much longer to learn all of the complexity of the laws regulating the operation of the human brain. Academician I. P. Pavlov wrote: "the Brain, of course,is a huge topic and its structure and its functions will take, it is clear that the long series of generations of explorers..."
The brain is a spherical body of yellowish-grey colour, soft and at the same time flexible. The soft consistency of the brain depends on the high content of water in it. It is interesting to note that the brain contains about the same amount of water as in the blood,is about 80 percent. However, due to the fact that the brain consists not only of nerve cells, but also of special support, "frame", tissue, called neuroglia, it has a certain form and has great elasticity.
On the question of the weight of the human brain has its own history, and it is possible to stop a few more. The weight of the adult brain varies from 1 100 to 2 000 grams, for an average of 1 375 grams for men and 1 250 - women.
In the last century, scientists assumed that the human brain weighs more than all other animals, and that this fact can explain the human mind. However, this conclusion was wrong. It was found that some of the large animals of the brain is much more difficult than in humans. For comparison, you can specify that the brain of an elephant weighs about 5 pounds, the brain China - about 3 pounds.
Then the attention was not on the absolute and the relative weight of the human brain, i.e. the ratio of the weight of the brain to the weight of the whole body. However, later, it was found that the relative weight of the human brain is not on the first place in the animal world: in the lowest monkeys and some small songbirds he is more than man.
Many scientists of the past centuries have attached great importance to the weight of the brain in people, believing that greater weight matches and more development of mental abilities. However, further research has shown that this view is incorrect. In the study of the brain of many prominent people found that the weight varies widely and often significantly above or below the norm. And the heavy weight of the brain known to science (2 850 grams) was an idiot with the epilepsy.
Science has established that the mental development of man, his intelligence does not depend on the weight of the brain. Apparently, these properties are associated with the peculiarities of the subtlest structures of the brain tissue, or, as scientists say-morphological, with the architecture of the brain.
But back to the story about the structure of the brain.
In the brain there are several main parts, different in size and shape. These three main parts. First of all it is the largest part of the brain - the large hemisphere, or the so-called "big brains". The two hemispheres are separated from each other by deep longitudinal slit. Under these big hemispheres on the back surface of the brain seen two hemispheres significantly smaller - each about the size of a chicken egg. This "little brain", or cerebellum. Finally, at the bottom, over the flat surface of the brain under the big hemispheres and under the cerebellum is the third key part of the brain stem. The back part of the brain stem, coming in a cavity of a skull, goes directly into the spinal cord, which is located in the spinal canal and takes almost all its length.
These three main parts of the brain are visible even at the most superficial examination. But if you look closely, you can distinguish between a very large number, so to speak, parts of the brain, all the features of its complex relief" - gyrus, cracks, bumps, depressions, holes. On the lower surface of the brain, which is called its base, is twelve pairs of escaping from the brain to nerves, like thick white thread.
Each such even the smallest detail of the brain studied in detail and has its name. Most of these names were given by scientists of ancient times and the middle ages. Some part of the brain and still bear the names of these scientists, for example, Saraliev bridge, selview water, rolandovna furrow, Vienna Galena, etc.