The basic structure of firearms

The main part of firearms is barrel - a metal tube, designed to give the projectile purposeful flight.
In originally invented firearms one end of the trunk (breech) was hermetically riveted, and at some distance in the bore was drilled a narrow channel - bare hole. Through free (muzzle) end up in the trunk were covered certain portion of gunpowder and then compressed it into the breech any material (cloth, paper, felt and other). Such a blockage of gunpowder provided during its combustion development of a high pressure, and the seal material called wad (powder). Then in the trunk was docilely bullet - lead ball size, usually corresponding to the diameter of the trunk. To bullet doesn't inadvertently dropped out of the trunk, it also strengthened the plug.
Trunk mounted on any, usually wooden, basis. The shot was carried out by ignition of gunpowder through bare hole.
Powder gases under high pressure plug as the piston is pushed missile, which gained speed in several hundred meters per second.
Military firearms is in service with the army, police and other Modern manual firearms, as a rule, automatic, i.e. this design, at which perezarazhenie weapons at the expense of residual energy of the gases produced by burning of gunpowder at the moment of shot.
Design features of some kinds of automatic weapons allow for both single shots and a burst of fire. Military weapons includes rifles, carbines, submachine guns, pistols, revolvers. All kinds of combat weapon with rifled: the bore has a screw-shaped grooves, which in propulsion bullets cause its rotation about the longitudinal axis, which gives the pool stability in flight and increases the flight range. Rifles and carbines are related to long-barreled weapons and are designed to hit targets at a distance of 1500 m, machines are srednestan weapons (firing up to 1000. m). Pistols and revolvers are short weapons. Precision shooting of them, as a rule, is limited by the distance of 50 m (Fig. 54).
In manual weapon type "revolver" the supply of new equipment for production of the shot is done mechanically by turning the store, which has the shape of a drum. In guns release of empty cases and filing a new cartridge is manufactured by the energy of the gas shot.

Fig. 54. Firearms: a - smooth-bore hunting rifle: 1 - Loo; 2 - barrel; 3 - block with slot sight; 4 - trigger; 5 - lever; 6 - shake butt; 7 - butt; 8 - swivel (barrel and stock); 9 - handguard; 10 - trigger; 11 safety bar; b - rifled weapons (pistol, PSM 5.45 mm): 1 - Loo; 2 - casing; 3 - safety bar; 4 - trigger; 5 - arm; 6 - shop; 7 - fuse; 8 - the trigger.

Sports weapons (as constructively and their ammunition) can almost do not differ from combat rifles, pistols) or hunting (smooth-bore rifles).
Hunting weapons are usually rifled or combined (with both barrels one smooth, the other - threaded; two smooth barrel, the third - threaded and others).
Self-made and remade weapons includes samopali and changed default weapon - cropping.
Atypical weapons is not a firearms in the full sense of the word. This group includes various instruments and tools applied at installation works that use the energy of powder combustion. However, they can be used as a kind of firearms (pistols), when fired from which you can cause lethal damage.
Missile weapon is mostly sports weapons, which is structurally may be similar with firearms, but the translational motion of a projectile, arrows, spear) is not at the expense of the shot, and through the transfer of energy of compressed air, or mechanical energy of the structure.