The structure of cartridges

The process of modernization of weapons demanded primarily standardization of ammunition. The basis of the grading was based on a number of round bullets made of one pound (432 g) of lead, its size specific to the diameter of the trunk, which was designated as a weapon. Currently gauge (diameter) is measured in "mm", although shotguns preserved old division. The most common weapon of the 12th and 16th caliber. In addition, there is the weapon of the 10th (rare), 20, 24, 28 and 32 caliber.
The charge itself was packaged in a cartridge (Fig. 55), who may be a factory, and handicraft production.

ammunition for firearms
Fig. 55. Ammunition for firearms. and smoothbore grabovomu: 1 - filled cartridge in a section; 2 - cartridge for guns 12 calibre, sleeve and polyethylene; 3 - cartridge for shotguns 20-gauge; liner Papkov; b - for hunting carbines calibers: 4, 5 to 9 mm; 6-8,2mm; 7 - 7,62 mm; 8 - 5.6 mm; - to combat long-barreled rifles and srednetajelogo caliber: 9 - 7,65 mm; 10. 11 -7,62 mm; 12 - 5.45 mm: g - pistols and revolvers calibers: 13, 14 - 9 mm; 15 - 7,65 mm; 16, 17 - 7,62; 18 - 6,35 mm; 19 - 5.45 mm; d - sporting rifles (20) and pistols (21) caliber 5,6 mm

Chuck sleeve serves to unify the powder charge and shell - bullet or a fraction. In the bottom of the liner has a special socket with bare holes. Into the socket mounted the cap (cap), having in its composition initiating (flammable powder) a substance, such as detonating mercury, lead azide.
In case placed the powder - smoke (black) or smokeless (pyroxylin, nitroglycerine). The burning of 1 g smoke of gunpowder, composed of potassium nitrate, charcoal and sulfur, produces about 300 cm3 gaseous products (carbon oxide, sulfide potassium, potassium carbonate, sulfate, nitrate and other), the burning of 1 g smokeless - about 900 cm gaseous products (carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and other). The number of gunpowder (in grams) calculated in accordance with the caliber and weight of the weapon. Since smokeless gunpowder when burned, produces about 3 times more gas, and use it in fewer than smoke.
In the cartridge for hunting smooth-bore weapon directly above the gunpowder is located cardboard circle (diameter sleeves) - the wad, which is put on another plug - felt (shtangovyj, wood-fiber and others). The purpose of the wads of creating the best sealing the combustion of gunpowder. When artisanal gear metal sleeves as a gunpowder wads can be used pieces of paper, newspaper, part of the envelopes and others, which in some cases is essential in the identification of weapons and criminal. On the wad put a bullet or pieces of lead shot. Shot charge strengthen Chuck cardboard plug. The fraction at the departure from the trunk first flying closely, and then gradually dissipates and generates rake in a certain area. Depending on the destination fraction may be of different diameter. Grade large fraction of more than 5.0 mm are called "shot". In accordance with GOST 7837-55 in our country issue a shot diameter from 1,5 to 5 mm Diameters fractions differ by 0.25 mm and identified a certain number (for example, the fraction 3.5 mm - № 3, 3 mm - 5 and others). Home-made fraction usually does not have the correct round form and sometimes represents a cut of lead wire (drat) - "broken" or "rod".
The cartridges do not contain a projectile or fractions)are called "idle". When fired from a gun, loaded "idle" bullets, from a bore pulled out under high pressure gas, polushariya of Poroshenko and, moreover, also the wad, which at close range can act as a projectile.
In cartridges for rifled weapons wads not available, as the bullet while passing through the barrel of his body tightly obtulerunt its lumen and thus provides the necessary integrity.

the cartridges and bullets for sport and combat weapons
Fig. 56. The structure of the cartridges and bullets for sport and combat weapons. I - Chuck (in section) and the bullets for a smooth-bore weapons; II - cartridges (broken down) to a rifle and a pistol of "Nagan"; b - AK-74; in - rifle TOZ; (II - structure of bullets and armor-piercing; b - tracer; in - jacketed; 1 - shell; 2 - gunpowder; 3 - condenser; 4 - cardboard pyzh; 5 - shot battery; 6 - felt wads; 7 - a cardboard strip-pyzh; 8 - shell bullet; 9 - lead weight; 10 - steel core; 11 - a luminous part.

In sports weapon used in most cases bullet razoblachenie, i.e., entirely made of lead. For shooting from fishing (hunting) of rifles usually use jacketed bullet. These bullets rear and side surfaces are a shell in the form of a Cup made from a rigid metal (Nickel silver, red brass). The front end of a bullet (ogival part) when you hit the target easily deformed, and sometimes falling apart, which exacerbates the severity of the injury. Shell rifled weapon is a bullet (may be of special design). Shell bullet is used for giving to her the greater hardness when you hit the target. Cartridges for weapons of war are supplied only FMJ bullets. The bullets of the cartridges for weapons of war may have special meaning: armor-piercing, incendiary, tracer, armor-piercing-incendiary and others In accordance with the purpose of changing the internal bullet design: in addition to the lead part, it can contain steel core (armor), glowing composition, which makes flying bullets visible (tracer) and other (Fig. 56).
Most often in forensic practice there are of damage caused from the manual rifles or shotguns.
Modern military hand-held firearms domestic production has calibre 9; a 7.62 and 5.45 mm calibre Reduction, and consequently, reduction of the weight of bullet lead, under equal conditions to increase the initial speed of a bullet.
Proceeding from the formula kinetic energy, to increase the power of defeat when designing cartridge advantageous to increase the speed of a bullet, than its mass.