Cellular, tissue, organ, system structure of a human body
The human organism consists of cells, tissues, organs and systems. There extracellular living matter, which is located between the cells or in the connective tissue. All of these components are combined in a single body operating under the control of the nervous, endocrine and cardiovascular systems. The nervous system unites and mutually agree functions of all organs and systems within the body, but also establishes relationships of an organism with its environment.
Noncellular structure are living matter, which is formed by the cells. Here are the main substance of the connective tissue consisting of proteins and mucopolysaccharides, and simplest. In the main substance of the connective tissue are reticular, elastin, collagen and argyrophile fiber, the cells of connective tissue. Simplest - cells, merged into a single mass, such as muscle fibers.
Organ - system all tissues associated community development and origin in phylogeny and embryogenesis; has a definite shape, topography and function. Each body there is a definite structure and functional linkages between the tissues, but with the prevalence of one type of tissue. For example, the liver contains all kinds of fabrics, but it dominates the epithelium, then there is connective tissue in the form of blood retikuliarna fabric, elastic and collagen fibers. In the walls of blood vessels have smooth muscle tissue. Nervous tissue in the liver presents vegetative entanglements. The number of bodies at the stages of ontogenesis of the person differently. There are bodies that exist in embryogenesis and do not have an adult, such as urinary ducts, sewer, Gill arches and so on
The body consists of cells and extracellular substances which form tissues, organs and systems are functioning under the integrating effect of nervous system and humoral factors. The life and development of the organism occurs under the influence of environmental and social factors. Structural peculiarities of the organism, its form and function are fixed hereditary factors, driven by genotype, formed in the process of otoprosthetics development.
The anatomic structure of a human being considered in vertical position with closed legs, arms, stretched along the body, and palms facing forward (position supination). There are the following parts of the body (Fig. 23). Head (caput) contains the skull (cranium), face (facies), nose (nasus), mouth (os). Neck (the cervix). The trunk (truncus) has your back (dorsum), chest (thorax), stomach (abdomen), pelvis (pelvis). Upper limb (membrum superius) is divided into the armpit (axilla), leverage (brachium), elbow (cubitus), forearm (antebrachium), brush (manus). Lower limb (membrum inferius) consists of the thigh (femur), knee (genu), the tibia (crus), foot (pes). In each part of the body there are certain areas that are described in the related departments.
|23. Body part and its departments.
1 - head (divisions: brain and facial);
2 - neck (divisions: actually neck - front, the new - back);
3 - trunk (divisions: the back, chest, abdomen, pelvis);
4 - upper limb (divisions: arm, shoulder, elbow, forearm, brush);
5 - lower limb (divisions: hip, knee, ankle, foot).
Sex differences, constitutional types, anthropological characteristics of a person
A person's appearance is determined by the form of his body, depending on the relief of skeletal muscle tone, the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer, the elasticity of the skin.
The position of man in nature
Anthropogenesis explains the place of the modern man (Homo sapiens) in Zoological system. According to the accepted classification for taxonomy, fauna, developed on the basis of the achievements of paleontology, anatomy, comparative anatomy, biology and embryology, the person belongs to the type of chordates, subtype vertebrates, mammals, the Primate order, the suborder monkeys, superfamily anthropomorphic, the family of hominids.