Tendon

Tendon - connective part of muscles, by which it attaches to the bone, articular capsule, fascia. Function tendons is to pass motions of muscular contractions. Tendons are different from muscle white color and luster, possess high strength and void elongation.

Fig. 1. The shape and location of the tendons, depending on the shape of the muscles, tendons arrows).

Tendons are long and short, are at the top (Fig. 1: 1 and 4), end (Fig. 1: 1-5) and in the intermediate part of muscles (Fig. 1: 6 and 7), have various forms - shnurovoy (Fig. 1: 1, 2 and 4), ribbon (Fig. 1: 3 and 6), plate (Fig. 1: 5 and 7). The plate of a tendon (the tendon tension or aponeurosis) perform the role of the skin to muscles and body cavities. Long flexor tendons of the hand and foot surrounded synovial pussy (see), contributing to more freedom of their movement during movement.
Histologically, tendons consist of bundles of thick, tightly lying collagen fibers, between which there is a thin elastic net and tendon cells. Outside tendon fibers of connective tissue surrounded by a shell - peritoneum. Connection tendons with muscle, bone (periosteum) is very durable due to the connective tissue formations.

the structure of the tendon Fig. 2. A longitudinal section of the finger brush: 1 and 3 - flexor tendons finger; 2 - mesentery tendon.

The blood supply of the tendons is carried out by vessels muscle of the abdomen or periosteum in the attachment. Tendon surrounded synovial vagina, are powered through the vessels of a mesentery tendon. (Fig. 2). They are innervated by the tendon fibers emanating from cerva muscle of the abdomen or nerve plexus periosteum.
Pathology: the most frequent injury and inflammation. Damage tendons can be closed or open. It closed injuries of tendons include bruises, subcutaneous breaks, dislocations. Tendon injury accompanied by bleeding, pain and swelling in the course of the tendon. Treatment: peace (rail), hard bandaging and physical therapy (UHF, paraffin and others).
Subcutaneous the gap tendons occurs when a sharp reduction of muscles or severe blunt force trauma. Tendon rupture is accompanied by pain and severe violation of the functions of the limbs are often able to probe dispersed the ends of the tendon. More frequent breaks Achilles tendon, tendons long head of the biceps shoulder and extensor fingers.
Open tendon injuries are more likely to occur when the injury with a sharp object. Diagnostics open damage tendons not difficult - the presence of wounds in the field of tendons, loss of function, often visible to the ends of the cross tendon.

exercises for fingers
Fig. 3. Therapeutic exercises for fingers after surgery on the tendons: 1 and 3 separate flexion and extension in interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints; 2 - separate extension of the fingers; 4 - an exercise with a stick; 5 - breeding fingers through healthy hand: 6 exercises on a rotating drum; 7 - the movement of fingers on the ladder; 8 - ball exercises; 9 - screwing her arm.

Treatment of injuries of tendons - operative, is to restore the continuity of damaged tendons by imposing tendinous sutures (see) and primary surgical treatment of wounds from an open damage (see the Wound, injury). When contaminated and crushed wounds produced only primary surgical treatment of wounds, and tendon suture not impose. Is antibiotic therapy. When imposing the tendinous sutures (closed injuries of tendons, cut clean wound) immobilization limb (plaster of Paris splint is placed) will be made within three weeks. The importance belongs to functional therapy with early active and passive movements, aimed at prevention of scar binding (Fig. 3).
The inflammatory process on the tendons often goes with the surrounding tissues (see Tendonitis, Felon). Frequent complication of inflammation and injury are scar fusion tendons surrounding tissues, leading to restriction of movement. Treatment of cicatricial contracture is carried out by anatomii (see) or of analiza (see).
Excessive mobility of joints, caused by a defect in the tendon, shows anodes (see).
Tumor tendons benign and malignant comparatively rare.