Diseases and injuries of joints

Detection of various diseases of the joints is based on a careful study of history (injury, nonspecific diseases, and so on), visual and palpation of the study of the joints, the functional assessment of their condition.
Inspection can detect changes in the external contours, a violation of the axis of the leg and deformation in the joints, muscular atrophy.
With the feeling, you can find the accumulation of fluid in the cavity of a joint, change of soft tissue and bone, articular cartilage and capsules, the presence of foreign bodies.
A number of diseases and injuries of joints is accompanied by limiting the amplitude of active and passive movements in joints; measurement of amplitude of movements produced with the protractor. The branches of the goniometer is placed along the axis of the components of the joint bones so that the axis of the hinge coincided with the joints. Fixing the branches, making movement in the joint and indicators in degrees over the arc of the protractor at rolling branches noted the value of mobility. Measurement is to start with a definition of the amplitude of active movements, then determine the amplitude of passive movements, possible with full relaxation of muscles. The amplitude of passive movements characterizes the maximum possibilities of joint and, of course, somewhat more active.
Most of the pathological processes in the joints is accompanied by accumulation of fluid or blood in his oral. When effusion, for example, in the cavity of the knee joint is determined symptom running (see) of the patella. An important diagnostic technique that allows you to inspect and study of fluid (microscopic and bacteriological) and thus to determine the nature of the lesion, is puncture (see) joint cavity. Valuable diagnostic method is x-ray examination. Along with the usual images used tomography (see) and artrografia (see).
Congenital hypoplasia of the articular surfaces of the articulated bones may be accompanied by a congenital dislocation, there are other congenital contracture (see Arthrogryposis).
Inflammation of the joints - arthritis (see) is the most common disease of the joints. The lesion may be localized in one joint or several. Most common rheumatic polyarthritis (see Rheumatism), tuberculous lesions (see Tuberculosis of bones and joints), lesions of joints with brucellosis (see), the non-purulent arthritis with injuries and other
Septic arthritis make a puncture with evacuation of the exudate and the introduction in the joints of broad-spectrum antibiotics, arthrotomy (see). Resection of the joints produced about severe septic arthritis, tuberculosis disease, traumatic injuries.
Dystrophic processes in the articular cartilage lead to the development of osteoarthritis (see).
The joints are often subjected to injury. Bruised joint pain, swelling and often hemorrhage (see Hemarthrosis). More severe trauma are dislocations (see), rupture of ligaments, fractures and infringement of the meniscus, intra-articular fractures of the epiphyses of bones (see Fractures).
Swelling of the joints benign and malignant can develop from capsules (synovyami, angiomas, microarray and others), of the articular cartilage (chondroblasts, chondroma), and other