Lead, Pb - a chemical element of group IV of the periodic system of D. I. Mendeleev. Soft metal grey, serial number 82, atomic weight 207,19, temperature melting 327,4°, temperature boiling 1740 degrees. Evaporation lead begins at temperature of 400 degrees. Valence connections +2, +4. Oxygen lead gives the number of oxides, have the most value PbO, Pb3O4, PbO2. With acids forming salts. Practical importance of nitrate, acetate, lead sulphide. Lead and all connections to it are industrial poisons. The greatest danger of poisoning occurs in mining and smelting of lead in manufacturing and charging the batteries, when soldering and tinning, in the production of lead paint, rubber products, in the manufacture of typographic font, repair of bearings, etc. Can be domestic lead poisoning when using clay glazed pottery, and the water coming through lead pipes. Lead enters the body through the respiratory, digestive and skin. Circulates in the blood in the form of phosphates and aluminates. Deposited in liver and bones. Excreted from the body through the intestine, kidneys; found in the gastric juice, bile, saliva, and human milk.
Preparations of lead are used in medicine as an astringent and antiseptic. Their purpose is limited to outdoor usage.
Lead water (Aqua plumbi) consists of 2 parts of the solution of the main acetate lead and parts of water. Used in the form of lotions and compresses in inflammatory diseases skin and mucous membranes. In eye practice is not used because of the danger of the cornea.
Lead patch simple (Emplastrum plumbi simplex; Emplastrum diachylon simplex). Composition: mixture of equal amounts of lead oxide, pork fat and sunflower oil with the addition of water in the quantity necessary for the formation of homogeneous plastic mass. Well sticks to the skin. Apply with pyo-inflammatory diseases of the skin, furuncles, carbuncles, etc.
Lead patch complex (Emplastrum plumbi compositum; Emplastrum diachylon compositum). Consists of a simple lead patch, rosin and turpentine.
Soap patch (Emplastrum saponatum) consists of simple leaden plaster, yellow wax, medical soap powder and sunflower oil. Cm. also Antiseptic, Astringents.