Adonoy apparatus and physico-chemical properties of the poison of karakotov

Adonoy apparatus black widow constitute the basic segments of the chelicerae, claws, agroproducers gland that lies in the cephalothorax, and their thin streams going through the channel inside of the claw and ends with a small hole, some not reaching the top, which promotes the free expression of poison in production. Fixing stuck in the extraction of nails with the help of teeth; reduction system of muscles in motion helicity, and the reduction gentle spiral muscle membrane gland produces pressure on her body, under whose influence can be extracted from it poison. The amount of venom glands black widow - about 0.5 mg
Native poison - light oily liquid, bitter on taste, acid or alkaline reaction, refers to toxalbumin; soluble in water and isotonic saline solvents (G. N. Samokhin, 1933; A. I. Kuznetsov, 1944). At a temperature of 60 to 100 degrees the poison becomes cloudy and gives protein precipitate. According to S. Century Constabula (1907), the poison is alkaline reaction, collapses under the influence of alcohol, ether. Some time it can persist in the dried cephalothorax black widow, so as not crystallize and drying destroyed. In glycerine, you can save several months (P. I. Marikovsky, 1956). Dried venom Sydney chimney spider Artax robutus - pinkish-white powder, slightly hygroscopic, well soluble in water. Aqueous solution of acidic, pH~ 4,5-5,0; when heated to 100 degrees C for 60 minutes in the presence of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid solution the poison remains toxic properties, and 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution or heating to 120 C for 20 min neutralizes it. Raw poison received in the amount of 100 mg from 500 female black widow by ultracentrifugation divided on 5 fractions with different biochemical and pharmacological properties; relative molecular mass of the most toxic fractions - 15 000 - 20 000 (Sutherland, 1972). From the venom of the East African spider Pterinochilus Sp. allocated 26 factions with relative molecular mass of 5 000-17 000; most toxic fractions 4-17, their median lethal dose is 0.5 mg (Perret, 1974). From the venom of brown recluse Lox. reclusa allocated 7-8 fractions with hyaluronidase, esterase, alkaline and phosphatase activity. The latter is characterized by a wide specificity and content of SH-groups. About the importance of the disulfide bonds in the tertiary structure of the enzyme shows inactivation adding to it mercaptoethanol; the addition of magnesium chloride (8,0-10·3) or chloride manganese incubated in mixture (pH of 9.0)containing 75 mcg protein poison, increased activity of the enzyme in 3-4 times, and zinc chloride or EDTA inachtivirovti it (Heitz, Vorment, 1974).
McGrone and Halata (1968) allocated from the venom of the Lat. mactans 6 protein fractions, α-aminobutyric acid, histamine, hyaluronidase, 5-oxitriptan and polypeptides with toxic properties. Granata et al. (1972) chromatographic has allocated 3 toxic protein fraction, which at incubation (pH 7.4, temperature 37 C) slice of the cerebral cortex increases the release of acetylcholine, as well as blocked histochemical reaction induced by catecholamines, adrenergic neurons iris. Protein fractions C and D, containing up to 2 mcg/ml of protein were more active than the fraction Century This poison releases norepinephrine-3H in the endings of the sympathetic nerves that Innervate the heart, which is accompanied by activation of beta-adrenergic receptors of the heart, chronotropic effect.
Despite manifested in the last 10 years the interest in the study of physical-chemical properties of the poison of spiders, particularly black widow, they studied insufficiently, which is usually explained by the impossibility of obtaining poison in pure form, and the difficulty of its receipt and storage and other Known (3. C. Barkahan, 1964)that the venom of the Latrodectus retains its toxicity for 14 days at a temperature of 4 C and, in addition, we have developed a modified method of obtaining poison using electrical stimulation (Smith, Micks, 1968).