Synovitis - inflammation of the synovial membrane of the joint, causing the accumulation of fluid in the cavity. Causes of synovitis consider infection hematogenous route in the joint cavity with acute and chronic infectious diseases (infectious synovitis), and repetitive injury, neuroendocrine and metabolic disorders, allergies and various chemical damaging factors (aseptic synovitis). The disease may be acute or chronic, while the nature of effusion in the joint cavity there are serous, sero-fibrinous and purulent synovitis.
Acute synovitis simultaneously affects several joints or one, most of the knee. The joint swells, the contours of his anti-aliased, local temperature over the area of joint raised movement in it is limited; palpation of the joint painful, is determined effusion - for example, when the knee joint synovitis bellatorum the patella. Originally acute synovitis proceeds as a serous inflammation of the synovial membranes, in which the exudate is a clear, yellowish liquid, but with an increase of inflammatory changes in the exudate of large accumulations of fibrin, dropped out in the form clots or separate threads (sero-fibrinous synovitis).
When joining a pyogenic infection serous or sero-fibrinous synovitis can turn into a festering synovitis. Less purulent synovitis occurs primarily. In this scenario, the disease progresses rapidly and is accompanied, in addition to local manifestations, and the General reaction - weakness, fever, chills, exudate - pus. Purulent synovitis can lead to the development of purulent arthritis (see).
Chronic synovitis, signs of which are chronic dropsy joint, aching pain in the joints and the reduction of its function, is usually the result of a premature termination of treatment of the acute form of the disease.
Treatment of acute synovitis begin with ensuring the replacement of complete rest, preferably using a plaster splint, applying heat to the joint. At the beginning of the disease with little effusion of these events is enough. When expressed as concentration of exudate, or if signs of infection are shown puncture (see) to remove effusion and the introduction of antibiotics and hormones in the joint cavity, the imposition of a pressure bandage. In infectious synovitis at the same time it is necessary to treat the underlying infectious diseases. In chronic synovitis is physiotherapeutic treatment, and in case of failure shows synovectomy (see).