Synthetic products

Synthetic products produced from synthetic high-molecular polymers: synthetic rubbers, resins, plastics, synthetic fibers. A great variety of types of synthetic products (machine parts, tyres, building constructions, objects of sanitation and hygiene, fancy goods, toys and other) causes a variety of technological processes of their production. Feature of technology of processing of synthetic resins, plastics and rubber in the product is exposed to heat raw materials, accompanied by release into the environment of gaseous products, the composition of which is determined by the formula of the raw materials used. Are decay products related polymers (styrene, chloroprene, vinyl chloride, phenol, formaldehyde and others), volatile components (plasticizers) and oxidation products of the individual ingredients of the raw materials (carbon dioxide, aldehydes, and so on). Especially difficult is the composition of the gas produced by hot vulcanization of rubber. Many of the products of combustion of polymers hazardous to health.
Separate stages of production of synthetic products (refining, screening and preparation of the compositions; mechanical processing of products, crushing waste, and others) are accompanied by the emission of dust end products (rubber, plastic) and their dust-forming ingredients-of fillers (soot, talc and other), vulcanization accelerators (captax, thiuram), stabilizers, of which the most hazardous compounds of lead (see). Harmful chemical substances released into the air in the process of manufacturing synthetic products, can cause occupational diseases and intoxications. With the direct contact of the skin work with certain types of raw materials in the manufacture of synthetic products (epoxy, phenol-formaldehyde, urea resins and others) there are a professional skin diseases.
Concomitant adverse factors in the production of synthetic products are high temperature, thermal radiation from equipment and finished products, often working contact with hot items. Some technological operations (crushing, cutting, grinding and other) are accompanied by the occurrence of intense noise (see) and vibration (see).
The improvement of labor conditions is achieved: 1) the right device and the good operation of ventilation systems, especially local ventilation, and capsulata harmful and dangerous production sites) rational planning workshops, placement and arrangement of the equipment and equipment in accordance with hygiene requirements, isolation unfavorable, the construction of new facilities for processes with harmful discharge in strict accordance with the regulations; 3) replacement of raw materials (plasticizers, stabilizers, fillers and so on), characterized by high toxicity, less hazardous and non-hazardous materials; 4) the replacement of toxic fluids, such as denila, harmless and implementation of electric heating equipment; 5) prohibition of use of equipment with large open surfaces, especially in thermal processes, and under special conditions required shelter them (kapsulate with local exhaust ventilation); 6) standardization and conformity to the technical specifications and GOST raw materials and other chemicals production; the prohibition of the use of compounds with harmful and dangerous impurities; 7) the maximum limit of the working contact, especially open skin with harmful substances; the use of necessary personal protection measures (pastes, ointments, gloves, respirators, protective clothing and so on); 8) providing enterprises showers, changing facilities, etc. is Important outreach and training on the provision of first aid, which nurse attached to service the relevant industries should be held regularly. Medical examinations (preliminary and periodic) are mandatory and are conducted in accordance with established rules.

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