The pelvis is the portion of the skeletonrelated to the belt of the lower extremities and consisting of two pelvic bones, sacrum and coccyx (Fig). Bone-ligament basis of the pelvis and hip joints serves as a support for the body.
There are big and small pelvis. Big basin is limited: in front of the soft tissue of the anterior abdominal wall, behind - the spine, from side - wings iliac bones; small pelvis: front - pubic (h) bones, behind - the sacrum and coccyx, and from sides - sciatic bones.
Pelvic bone is composed of three bones: the iliac, and sciatic pubic connected with lateral departments of the sacrum (sacroiliac joints) and among themselves (standard connection). The lower part of the rump is connected with the coccyx, forming an inactive connection, reinforced front and back ligaments. On the back surface of the sciatic bones are two clippings that overlap ligaments, forming large and small sciatic holes. Available in the pelvis bone and muscular education: the front upper and lower spine, the iliac crest, pubic connection, etc. are distinctive items used for orientation in this field and measurement of the pelvis. In newborns , there is a slight flattening of the Ilium, the mismatch in size and form of the acetabulum and the femoral head.
Sexual features of the pelvis - see the Female pelvis.
Big basin contains the authorities of the lower abdomen (thin and thick intestine); small pelvis, bladder, rectum and internal genital organs (women - uterus and its appendages, in men is prostate gland, seminal vesicles, part VAS duct).
The peritoneum, covering the small pelvis, the transition from one institution to the other forms pockets: men gallbladder-pryamokishechnye, women gallbladder-uterine and premonicion-Royal, which in the case of pathology can be filled with fluid or blood. In podbroshennogo space (between the peritoneum and the fascia) lays fiber, enveloping vessels, nerves and organs of small pelvis.
Within the pelvis are: iliopsoas, internal locking, piriformis muscle, which originate from the bones of the pelvis and is attached at the hip; the muscle lifting the anus, the sphincter of the anus and the PC muscle. To the outer group of muscles of the pelvis are: the outer locking, large, medium and small buttock, upper and lower twin muscles. The muscle lifting the anus, their fibers woven into the wall of the vagina, rectum, and attached to the tailbone.
In the field of locking holes and membranes, inside and outside start internal and external locking muscle that are attached at the hip in the field vertelney fossa. From the side surface of the II, III and IV of the sacral vertebrae and sacroiliac joint departs the piriformis muscle, passing through a large sciatic the hole and attached to the top of the greater trochanter. This muscle, passing through the hole, forming two gaps: over-and podgruzilo; through the first of them overlook the top of the buttocks vessels and nerves, and through the second (podgruzilo) - lower gluteal vessels of the same name nerve sciatic nerve, etc. Through a small sciatic foramen of the pelvis in the crotch penetrate both vessels and nerves.
Output of small pelvis limited sciatic mounds, hips burovye ligaments and closed muscles (raising the anus and PC) and fascia, forming the pelvic floor muscles, or the pelvic floor. The angle between the pubic bones made urogenital diaphragm, formed by two muscle - urethral sphincter and deep transverse muscle of perineum. Through the urogenital diaphragm are urethra and vagina, and through the pelvic diaphragm - rectum.
Fascia pelvis is the continuation of the fascia lining the abdominal cavity; it has two pieces: the visceral and parietal. The first forms fascial cases for the small pelvis (bladder, rectum), and the second lines the wall of the pelvis.
Blood circulation in the pelvis and its organs is provided by branches of the internal iliac artery. Vienna accompanying arteries that form a venous plexus, the blood of which is poured into the internal iliac vein, and then in the lower hollow and partly in the portal vein. Lymph flow occurs along the external iliac artery and vein, internal iliac vessels, and on the front surface of the sacrum. On the front surface of the sacrum and the piriformis muscle is sacral plexus, the branches of which together with the branches of the lumbar, PC and pelvic plexus Department of the vegetative nervous system are innervation of muscles and pelvic organs.

  • Traumas and tumors of the pelvis