Prevention of dental diseases. Fluorine

The high biological activity of trace elements has led to the study of the exchange of the last under different physiological and pathological conditions, including dental caries.
The literature data suggest that the imbalance of trace elements contributes to the development of experimental dental caries, while the introduction to the diet of individual micronutrients leads to a decrease in the incidence of animals caries.
Grain products, grown in different soils under different water supply, gave unequal common caries. Meanwhile Supplement to the diet of natural foods significantly reduced tooth decay. Consider that micronutrients have an impact directly on the teeth, changing their structure and chemical composition, operate on a plaque, braking or activating metabolic reactions that affect the properties and chemical composition of saliva and microflora of an oral cavity, act on enzymatic processes in the saliva and tissues of the tooth. The main value of micronutrients - increase resistance of tooth hard tissues to the caries (R. D. Gabovich, D. Ovruch, 1969 and others).
The main trace element affecting the teeth, is fluoride. When the optimal concentration (1 ml/l) fluoride in drinking water in the teeth it contains 300 - 400 mg/kg, respectively, of 0.75 - 1% of fluorapatite. That's what the authors explain anticariogenic fluoride, considering that the fluorapatite dissolves slowly tooth tissues become less permeable. Other researchers managed to establish, that fluoride promotes the retention of calcium and phosphorus compounds in the body and even promote the process of remineralization.
Some researchers show that fluoride inhibits the activity of enzymes of bacteriathat inhabit the oral cavity and dental plaque, has anti-enzymatic effect on the processes of glycolysis in oral fluid and plaque.
I. G. Lukomsky suggested the possibility of using drugs fluorine for the prevention of dental caries. Later he formulated the hypothesis anticariogenic the effect of fluorine, according to which fluorine, penetrating into the enamel has a stimulating effect on the trophic function of odontoblasts. On the basis of these assumptions, and results in the treatment of giperestesia dentin fluoric sodium was proposed clinical method of prophylaxis of dental caries (local fluoridate), widely used for a number of years.
Currently expressed anticariogenic fluoride entering the body with water, food and other means, no doubt. Extensive epidemiological studies of morbidity teeth in different biogeochemical areas where the drinking water contains the required amount of fluorine, confirm this position. Along with this long and comprehensive observation of artificial fluoridation of water have shown that this is a very effective way to prevent tooth decay. Currently, water fluoridation is held in more than 30 countries and fluoridated water receive more than 130 million people. Reduction of caries in various climatic and geographical zones varies in the range of 20 - 50%. Effective and other methods of application of fluorine - in milk, tablets, toothpaste, mouthwashes.
The difference efficiency of fluoride in different regions is connected, apparently, with different content in drinking water and the products of other minerals and salts, including calcium. So, B. A. Kosovska with co-authors (1976) to study the relationship of salts of calcium, magnesium, fluoride in drinking water and the prevalence of dental caries among students surveyed some districts of Odessa region (43 settlements and 79 sources) and toured 11 446 students.
Low concentrations of fluorine (from 0.1 to 0.6 mg/l) was found in water 60% of water sources, the optimal (0.7-1.0 mg/l)-21%, high (1.5 to 6.0 mg/l) - in 19% of water sources. The mineral composition of groundwater (78 of water sources from 79) has a rather large constancy. Including the results of tests of water sources showed that the rigidity of water due to the content of salts of calcium and magnesium to 7 mEq (in accordance with GOST)detected in 60%and above this, the indicators 40% of water sources.
In line with this, the calcium content of up to 75 mg/l (maximum permissible norm by international standards) was detected in 60% of water sources, in other calcium content was varied within 94 - 440 mg/L. the Content of magnesium below the maximum permissible limits by international standards (50 mg/l) were defined in 51% of water sources.
According to the authors, the prevalence and intensity of caries among the examined schoolchildren varied within 36 to 100%, and largely depended on the content of fluorine salts of calcium and magnesium in drinking water. Thus, the lowest prevalence of dental caries (44 - 60%) at the intensity of caries lesions 0,8 - 1,1 per child was discovered in those settlements, where, along with the optimal level of fluoride in the water (0.7-1.0 mg/l) revealed increased concentration of calcium (94 - 440 mg/l), magnesium (76-144 mg/l) and a relatively high total hardness (up to 34 mg-EQ).
In those settlements where there were optimal concentration of fluoride in the water sources (0,7 - 1,1 mg/l), but low level in water salts of calcium (up to 36 mg/l), magnesium (to 37 mg/l) and correspondingly low total hardness of water (average of 4.8 mg-ekv), the prevalence of dental caries (64 - 78%) was significantly higher than in the previous group of children, and the intensity of defeat reached to 2.1-2.3 carious lesions per child on average.
In those settlements, where the water sources was high content of fluorine (3 to 5 mg/l) and rigidity values (8 - 18 mEq), the prevalence of dental caries was lowest (36 - 47%), and the intensity of defeat just respectively 0,37-0,8 carious tooth per child on average among schoolchildren, who drank water with high fluoride content (2 to 3 mg/l), but having a low total hardness (1,1 mEq), respectively, and low content of calcium and magnesium, the prevalence of dental caries was significantly higher (52 to 59%) at the intensity of the defeat of 0.9 to 1.6 carious tooth on one child in the middle.
In those localities where the water contains small amounts of fluorine (0,1.-0,3 mg/l), the prevalence of dental caries was high (65 to 100%). However, the higher the water hardness in the same fluorine content, the lower intensity of carious lesions of teeth.
These data clearly illustrate the conclusion about the relationship of fluorine and other elements of drinking water to the prevalence of dental caries.
About anticariogenic action of a number of other trace elements (copper, cobalt, Nickel, titanium, and others) there are a lot of work, but the data are contradictory. From clinical studies note the work of T. M. Good (1966), which was administered in the diet of children (187) additional sulphate zinc (0,003 g) for 3 months every six months as a trace element that contributes to strengthening of hard tooth tissues. The observations were carried out during three years. The results of prevention lesions of teeth was estimated on the basis of the prevalence and intensity of caries (increase in the number of decayed teeth per person per cent). It is established that additional introduction into the organism of children sulphate zinc contributed to the reduction in the prevalence of dental caries by 20-25% and significantly reducing the number of growth of carious teeth on one child in the middle. The author makes the conclusion about the necessity of adding zinc to the diet boarding schools to reduce tooth decay in children. However, this initiative has not received the further spread.

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