The oral hygiene

Regular and proper care of mouth cavity is an integral part of preventive measures. Modern cooking food and nutrition of the population, especially those who are soft powdered foods, do not contribute to self-purification of the teeth during chewing. Products that accelerate salivation and mechanical cleansing the teeth (apples, raw carrots, turnip and other vegetables), are rarely used. Instead, they often eat cakes, puddings, mousses, cereals, cakes and similar dishes, resulting in the mouth accumulate sticky remnants of food, which is a good nutrient medium for many microbes. Under their influence remains of food are subjected to fermentation, putrefaction, cause bad breath. They also serve as a basis for the formation of dental calculus.
Special studies were conducted among groups of individuals, previously regularly cistella teeth (excluded the care of teeth), and assigned them soft foods. 14 - 21 days all the observed appeared abundant dental plaque and inflammation to the gums, similar to gingivitis. This pathological process eliminated only by removing dental sediments and the subsequent careful oral hygiene.
This was a clear evidence of the preventive value of oral hygiene. In addition, mass surveys conducted in various countries, has convincingly shown that systematic care of teeth is certain preventive value not only in the prevention of diseases of the teeth and tissues of parodentium, but also in reducing the number of common diseases. So, scientists have found that when the regular care of oral cavity much less aggravated chronic tonsillitis.
However, especially noticeable preventive effect of oral hygiene in the analysis of the frequency of dental diseases. So, determined that regular dental care significantly reduces the frequency of caries. In particular, the children of 7 - 9 years who are not brushed your teeth or did it regularly, healthy teeth were just 55,6 - 56,8% of cases, and among students, observing the rules of oral hygiene, their number rose to 71.3 per cent. In the older age group (12 - 14 years) children this difference is even more noticeable: 44.6% of school children with healthy teeth among caring for your mouth and only 20,4-25,2% among children did not follow these basic rules of hygiene (Fig. 12).
The same clear correlation was discovered when counting the number of decayed teeth on average by one of the surveyed pupils. So, in children 7 to 9 years old, regularly cleaning the teeth, was found just 0,54 caries, 12 - 14 years - 1,58, while those who did not or was making hygienic irregularly, the number of decayed teeth reached 0,98 - 7-9 years, 2,59 - 2,87 12-14 years on average per pupil. Thus, in both age groups of children, observing the rules of oral hygiene, the number of decayed teeth was approximately two times less (Fig. 13). It should be emphasized that this does not mean that if you proceed with regular brushing, then the decay will disappear immediately and cease to occur again. The mechanism of development of this disease is not so simple, and it is attended by many others, including General, factors: heredity, the reactivity of the organism, the nature of power and other Clinical observations have shown that only a long, for several years held the oral hygiene gives strong preventive results.
It should be noted that no less influenced by the oral hygiene on the mucous membranes of the gums and underlying tissues. In Fig. 14 shows that the incidence of periodontal disease and other diseases of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity in children, regularly cleaning the teeth, several times less. The same condition of the mouth were found in the other age groups: under the regular care of oral cavity periodontal disease identified a total of 24 - 30% of the surveyed, and failure to comply with sanitary regulations at 45 - 65%.
Notably, under systematic cleaning of teeth diseases of fabrics of parodont and dental deposits occurs much less frequently than in those cases, when there has been a failure to observe rules of personal hygiene or she were conducted irregularly (Fig. 15). Rich dental deposits, in turn, are predisposing factor for the development of periodontal disease. It is established that among persons who regularly cleaning your teeth once a day, plaque occurs significantly more often than twice teeth cleaning. Meanwhile irregular care of the oral cavity or the lack of hygiene skills of the frequency distribution of the plaque was 2-4 times more.
Even more clear picture is defined in relation to the distribution of Tartar. So, in that case, if the teeth are cleaned regularly in the morning, the plaque was significantly more often (65 - 70% of the surveyed)than in those who did it in the evening (from 45 to 48% of the surveyed). When two-time cleaning of dental stone are revealed only 30% of cases. Among those who brush their teeth regularly, dental stone found in 70 - 80% of cases, and in the group surveyed who do not follow the mouth, he met most frequently (93%). These data are quite convincingly confirm that the presence of soft and calcified dental plaque largely depends on the quality of care for the mouth and teeth.
Very interesting and the fact that in all the three groups surveyed increased wear of tooth tissues occurs in about the same number of cases. This indicates better safety brushing modern hygienic means.
These data strongly suggest that need to brush your teeth regularly.
Very good results were obtained with the use of rational oral hygiene in the treatment of periodontal disease and dental caries. So, at the very initial stages of periodontitis and gingivitis thorough and proper oral hygiene, held after the medical intervention, not only reinforcing the results of treatment, but also warned of further development of the disease. The use of special treatment-and-prophylactic toothpaste, which included useful biologically active additives (minerals, salts, vitamins, extracts of medicinal plants), significantly improved the results of earlier medical intervention, alienated, and sometimes eliminate the recurrence of the disease (Fig. 16).
The systematic application of toothpastes containing phosphates, drugs fluorine and other trace elements, reduced the frequency and intensity of dental caries in children.
Very graphic and interesting data were obtained in experiments on white rats. These animals a special diet that contains approximately 50% sugar, causing caries, which is similar to the human disease. Simultaneously, half animal conducted daily cleaning of the teeth with a custom brushes and hygienic pastes. It turned out that by the end of the experience (about 70 days) in rats, which was brushing his teeth caries was much less than that of the animals who did not. Two-time cleaning of teeth was more effective - it led to the reduction in the incidence of dental caries by almost 40%. Application anticariogenic toothpastes in animals has allowed to reduce their incidence in 2-3 times.
Experimental research not only confirmed the importance of oral hygiene, but also helped quickly and accurately to explore some of therapeutic and prophylactic preparations introduced in toothpastes. Provides information graphically illustrate the role and importance of oral hygiene and prevention of dental diseases. However, as practice shows, the oral hygiene is poor population. In various countries, as well as in some of our major cities and rural areas were conducted sample surveys of the population, is quite sufficient for specific and objective findings. In particular, by a visual inspection of the mouth, survey about the hygienic skills and method of patronage at home, it was found that in cities regularly takes care of the oral cavity, on average, around 30-50% of the population. In rural areas these figures are significantly lower.



Frequency care of oral cavity in different age groups of the urban population
(in % of those surveyed)

 

Dental care

Age group surveyed (in years)

satisfactory (regular)

unsatisfactory (irregular)

no

7-9 12-14 15-25 35-60

25-30 30-35 35-40 25-30

35-40 45-50 45-50 35-40

25-30 15-20 15-20 30-35

At the same time in different age groups the ratio of "cleaning" and "nechistyh" unequally. The average results of these surveys for urban population is presented in table. 22.
As can be seen from the table, in- . about 35-50% of the surveyed are caring for your mouth regularly, i.e. from case to case, and nearly 30% of people do not brush their teeth. Men more often take care of the oral cavity. Thus, in the group regularly cleaning your teeth boys 40%, and girls -60%, in the group where the oral hygiene is missing boys - 80%and girls - only 20%. Next, with age, the index of oral hygiene rises to 25-30 years, and then begins to decline and reach the initial level, i.e. the results obtained during the examination of children aged 7 - 9 years. Several smoothed the difference in dental care for men and women, but in all age groups women observe hygiene rules more often. The increasing number of those who observe and conducting regular oral hygiene, falls on the age period of 12 to 14 and 15 to 25 years, when boys and girls begin to more closely monitor their appearance, including for teeth. In this period considerably improves the quality of oral hygiene.
The survey and the survey also showed that the vast majority of respondents do not have the most basic information about oral hygiene and preventive and aesthetic value, modern hygienic means, their selection and methods of use. Meanwhile, the importance of oral hygiene is not limited to mechanical cleaning the teeth from plaque and food debris, as previously thought. Modern ideas about the importance of oral hygiene is much wider. Thus, complex biochemical, radiological, spectrographic and other studies have convincingly proved that regular cleaning of the mouth and timely removal of soft dental Deposit contribute to the physiological process of "ripening" of the tooth enamel, which tissues of the tooth after the eruption of enriched with calcium salts, trace elements, are more durable and resistant to adverse external influences. Secondly, using special treatment-and-prophylactic toothpaste, it is possible to regulate the flow of those or other useful items (phosphates, calcium, minerals, vitamins, etc) in the tissues of the teeth, gums and even deeper tissues of parodentium. Third, regular care for your mouth has a very beneficial effect on the mucous membrane of the gums. Systematic massage gums that occur during brushing, improves circulation of periodontal tissues and activates them in metabolic processes.

The main recommendations for the care of oral cavity

In the literature very often the most controversial recommendations regarding the care of the oral cavity, select toothbrush, its applications and storage, selection and use of toothpastes and elixirs, as well as other issues of this problem. This is due primarily to the fact that only in the early 60-ies of the century, domestic and foreign scientists have been widely studied various aspects of oral hygiene. In this regard, new scientific data, which on the basis of specific results to provide sound advice on the care of oral cavity and teeth.