Diseases of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity

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Local factors. These include plaque (dental plaque), which is credited with a major role in the development of inflammatory forms of periodontal disease, as it contains huge amounts up to 800 million to 1 mg) microbes, waste products which an adverse effect on the gum tissue.
Plaque, gradually soaking salts of calcium, turns into Tartar, which also negatively affects the gum tissue. Tartar is BeloVenesolana lime deposits. It consists of organic substances (18-20%), represented by microorganisms, food residues, with the epithelium , etc., Inorganic components (phosphate calcium, calcium carbonate, salt magnesium, silicon, iron and other elements) reach 80 - 82%. In the beginning, usually at the necks of the teeth are formed soft dental Deposit, consisting of protein substances saliva - mucin, food residue, flat, dead cells of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, microorganisms. The emergence of soft plaque is usually connected with insufficient natural or artificial cleaning teeth.
Different people Tartar postponed varies: some are faster, others slower. It depends on many, including General, factors, in particular on the state of metabolic processes in the organism, and also the frequency and care for your mouth. Mass survey showed that the accumulation of Tartar occurs in persons of all age groups on average 75 - 80% of cases. When oral cavity diseases (periodontitis, gingivitis) much more often - 90 - 96% of patients. The accumulation of Tartar and plaque on the teeth adversely affect the gum tissue, causing inflammation that leads to unpleasant smell from a mouth, indicate poor care of teeth.
Incurred in the gum tissue inflammation, in turn, contributes to further the formation of dental plaque, including subgingival, the appearance of which is connected with the existing pathological inflammation in the gingival pocket. Education dental-gingival pockets creates favorable conditions for the development of microflora.
To local traumatic factors that adversely affect the tissues of parodentium, also include defects sealing (hanging seal), prosthodontics (deep beneath the gum planted crown), orthodontic treatment, and in addition, the high attachment bridle lips, overload of periodontal tissues, crowding in front of the site, etc. All of them in one way or another contribute to inflammation in the periodontal tissues.
Common factors. Special attention in studies of Russian scientists is given to the study of metabolism, the role of disorders of the nervous system, the effect of endocrine disorders. Thus, some researchers found a correlation between Hypo - and hyperthyroidism, thyroid, parathyroid, and sex glands. Others have found an important impact violations of calcium and protein metabolism in the body. Along with this came research about the large role of hypovitaminosis C, b, a and E and micronutrient deficiencies on the condition of periodontal tissues.
Particular attention in recent years has been paid to the study of the changed reactivity of the organism in periodontal disease. It was shown that a certain role in the development of periodontal disease play autoimmune mechanisms.
In our country the most widespread are two theories of etiology and pathogenesis of the most common degenerative forms of periodontal disease - vascular and neuro-trophic. According to the first dystrophic changes of alveolar process of the jaws occur because of sclerosis arterioles and dysfunction of the nervous fibers of parodont. Neuro-trophic theory explains dystrophic changes in periodontal tissues disorders trophism, the resulting effects on the nervous education and reflex leading to the development of the pathological process.
In this regard, prevention of periodontal disease should be built, according to A. I. Rybakov and C. S. Ivanov (1973), based on modern theories of its origin, taking into account polyetiological nature of the pathological process. In a basis of preventive measures lies with the individual peculiarities of the development and course of the disease, therefore, prevention of periodontal disease should be strictly individual.


The scheme of preventive measures in this case should include the following:
1. Elimination of the pathological situation in the mouth - including provides thorough removal of dental deposits as a source of infectious lesions in the oral cavity. This is a very important stage of prevention, which should be under anesthesia. A number of experts considers it possible to charge the event nurses periodontal surgery.
No less important is the elimination of permanent injury beyond changing incorrectly made fillings and dentures. Plastic vysokoperedelnyh frenulum lips and scarring of tissues of the mouth. Eliminate bad habits and professional adverse factors. It is necessary to achieve normalization of the act of chewing, in order to restore the physiological functional load on periodontal tissues and teeth.
2. Training vessels of the maxillofacial area. Removing congestion and improved blood circulation in the periodontal tissues are important and can be achieved through exercise vascular system special gymnastic complex and exercise facial and jaw muscles. In particular, improve the blood circulation in the periodontal exercises circular muscles of the mouth, the front and rear groups of masticatory muscles and the muscles of the tongue. Equally important is finger massage alveolar process.
3. Individual hygienic measures. They should be aimed at rational care of the oral cavity with the help of special medical-prophylactic toothpaste and tooth elixirs.
4. Therapeutic measures in the mouth. They should not cause additional irritation, disrupt microbial symbiosis and physiological environment in the mouth. Therefore, they are gentle.
5. Rational nutrition. This factor in the prevention of periodontal disease plays a big role. It is especially increased after it was set to a nutritional factor in the origin and development of periodontal disease. A. I. Rybakov said that the correct nutrition of pregnant women, full nutrition for children are very important and most of the early prevention activities.
When there are initial signs of periodontal disease is assigned a special meal consisting in limiting the consumption of carbohydrates and fats and added to the diet of proteins, vitamins, minerals, fresh vegetables and fruits.
6. Prevention of atherosclerosis. Given the hypothesis expressed by a number of authors, the prevention of atherosclerosis in the prevention of periodontal disease is a medical event, and it is of great importance. Used for this purpose is a whole complex of measures aimed at the prevention of atherosclerosis. It is prescribed by the doctor-therapist in the total volume of preventive measures.
7. Clinical supervision. With the purpose of organization and implementation of measures for the prevention of periodontal disease is a constant examination of patients suffering from primary symptoms of this disease. Prophylactic medical examination provides constant monitoring of the oral cavity that can prevent and delay further development of periodontal lesions.