The value of phosphates in the prevention of caries

The value of phosphates in the prevention of dental caries has long been debated, but without real evidence in clinic and experiment. This is because in recent years, research has focused mainly on studying the effects of fluoride on the caries of the teeth and the organism as a whole. Only in the last decade of the phosphates began to pay more and more attention. First it were experimental studies on animals (rats, hamsters). So, first of all, it was established that phosphates and other mineral components of the diet contribute to the decline in dental caries and necessary for the prevention of caries. In particular, some foreign scientists have shown that the addition of phosphates, sodium and calcium in the amount of 2% directly as food or bread significantly decreased the amount of carious lesions and changed the nature of its manifestation. In addition, it appeared, that had great value ratio CA/P in the diet. When changing CA/P 1.0:0.5 to 1:2 was a progressive reduction in the incidence of dental disease in animals. Later were explored different ways of diet containing different amounts of phosphorus and calcium, but in a constant ratio CA/P = 1,0. Found that if you increase the amount of calcium and phosphorus from 0.25% to 1.0% of all indicators and severity of dental caries considerably decreases. Add these components to the diet to 1.5% not strengthened anticariogenic effect, and separately phosphorus or calcium in the amount of 1% gave the same results as with the joint introduction. It was found that a higher content in the diet of phosphorus and several smaller calcium contributed to increasing the immunity of animals to dental caries. To clarify the influence of phosphates on caries we conducted a pilot study.
Studies were conducted on white rats of line Vistar" (225 animals), which, along with cariogenic ration was additionally introduced various phosphates.
Negative influence on teeth caries on all counts, though was a bit different, mainly remained similar at separate groups of animals. So, in rats that one-deputizing phosphate sodium, the number of decayed teeth reached 44.3 percent of the control rats - 55,1%, and most other animals varied 35,3 - 37,8%. Only in rats that were given glycyrrhizinate calcium, was 29,1% of the damaged teeth.
The nature and degree of the damage teeth were different. So. medium and deep caries is somewhat less frequent in rats fed disubstituted sodium phosphate (24,6 ± 2,4%), one - and disubstituted phosphate calcium (20,5 + 2,3 and 26.4 + 2.5%). In other animals, the number of severe cases of tooth decay has reached 29,7 - 37,5%. However, these differences are in most cases not significant.
Thus, studies have shown that inorganic phosphates less effective than drugs such as phytin and especially glycyrrhizinate calcium. However, some of them, particularly the one-deputizing sodium phosphate, one-and disubstituted calcium phosphate, contributed several more lowering of dental caries. The data obtained coincide with observations of other researchers, who marked anticariogenic action of some inorganic and organic phosphates, mainly in the experiment on animals.
In recent years were obtained positive results in the prevention of dental caries mainly organic phosphates in children. In particular, based on our three-year observations installed two-fold reduction of caries in children at introduction in a diet of phosphates and microelements. Foreign researchers also received a steady decline in the incidence of dental caries after applying the organic phosphates, they noted that the best effect is registered in children 5 to 12 years old.
Meanwhile, some researchers have not established anticariogenic actions disubstituted calcium phosphate added to the diet in amount of 2%. Negative results, according to the researchers themselves, are connected, apparently, with that used drugs were poorly soluble. Most likely, phosphates, like vitamins, should be used in combination with other anticariogenic drugs.