Prevention of dental diseases. Vitamins

The biological role of vitamins in the organism vital activity is very high. The value attributed to vitamins in the exchange processes in the formation of bone and substance of the tooth, led to the assumption that the lack of some of them is in particular due to the development and frequency of caries of teeth. Meanwhile, data from the literature on this issue is scarce and contradictory. Some researchers attach great importance to the vitamins in the prevention of dental caries, others deny their preventive action.
The largest number of studies devoted to the discussion of the preventive role of b vitamins affecting carbohydrate, fat, protein and water exchanges and regulating redox processes in the body. Along with this important give the vitamins a, C, E, D2 and To that stimulate bone formation and oxidation-reduction processes that are involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids, phosphorus and calcium, affect the growth and development of cells of the body, activate some of proteolytic enzymes , etc. However, in this case, the available data are rather contradictory.
To determine and clarify the role of vitamins in a complex anticariogenic events we have delivered experimental research on white rats "Estar" (395 animals), which along with cariogenic ration was additionally introduced various vitamins.
Studies have shown that vitamin complex In the biggest anticariogenic activity have vitamins b, and B6. Applying them during the study period, we achieved a significant reduction in the frequency of lesions of teeth caries. So, if in rats did not receive preventive additives, the number of decayed teeth reached 58,5%, in animals that were given vitamin B1, these indicators decreased (by 45.8%), and in rats treated with vitamin B6, reducing the number of decayed teeth came to 32.7%. Its effect is very close to anticariogenic influence of sodium fluoride. Meanwhile, vitamins B2, and B15 had no anticariogenic influence. It should be noted that in rats fed vitamins B1 and B6, decreased the number of deep and secondary caries.
With regard to the application of vitamins a, C, D2, E, and K, none of them have led to a considerable reduction in the incidence of animals by caries, the prevalence of which varied from 51,6 - 66,4% . However, the introduction of vitamins C, E and especially And has led to some decrease in the number of medium and deep carious lesions of teeth in animals.
Experimental researches showed that not all used in the experiments on rats vitamins have a clear causal link with the dental caries. Some of them (vitamins B1 B6) led to a significant (30 - 45%) decrease in the frequency of lesions of teeth caries and facilitated its course, while others (vitamin B15,:) had no significant effect on the indices of dental decay or only helped reduce the number of heavy and medium-carious lesions of teeth (vitamins a, C and K).
Thus, although we have not received direct evidence of the influence of some vitamins to dental caries after their eruption, cannot be considered that the introduction of vitamins in the body during pregnancy and lactation, i.e. in the period bookmarks and teeth formation, useless. The literature data provide strong evidence of the important role of various vitamins in the period of growth and formation of tissues of the mouth and teeth for the correct development of the latter. In this regard, during the discussion of the experimental data cannot be neglected age factor, in particular the degree of development of the masticatory apparatus of animals in the period of conducting of preventive measures. Perhaps the absence of Express anticariogenic effect, we see the introduction of vitamins a, B15, C, E and K, was due to the fact that by the beginning of the experience of the process of teething in animals has actually been completed.
It should be assumed that the introduction of optimal treatment-and-prophylactic doses of these vitamins during pregnancy and lactation more favorable impact on the formation and maturation of dental tissues, which, in turn, will increase their resistance to pathological processes. However, some vitamins (for example, B1 and B6) can be used in a complex of preventive measures even in the presence formed masticatory apparatus, especially during the eruption of the so-called "maturity" of the enamel already appeared teeth. This is to some extent allows to expand opportunities of preventive work.
Currently, some vitamins are used for dental caries prevention in the clinical setting. The results of these observations are noteworthy and can be used in practical work. So, O. I. Agapova (1954) used for the prevention of dental caries vitamin b! and showed that in children aged 5 to 7 years of negative influence on teeth caries decreased in comparison with the control group the average on 24%. Meanwhile, L. A. Vilkova (1961) at introduction in a diet of toddlers (1 - 3 years) of vitamin B1 got reduction of caries in 2 times in comparison with children of the control group.
S. I. Varennikov (1964) used for the prevention of caries vitamin B6, which is part of the enzymes involved decarbauxilirovanie pereaminirovanie and amino acids. Pyridoxine is actively involved in the metabolism of tryptophan, methionine, cysteine, gluharinaja and other amino acids, and fats and lipids.


179 schoolchildren aged 7 - 12 years of boarding school of Moscow for two years daily in addition to diet were given 5 mg of vitamin B6. At the same time watched another group of children (159 students)who had only planned sanitation of the oral cavity.
We studied the effect of vitamin B6 separately on milk and permanent teeth on the prevalence and intensity of caries. It was established that additional introduction to the diet of children of vitamin B6 not have a material impact on the incidence of caries of milk teeth. As for the permanent teeth, it was noted a clear decline in dental caries in children receiving vitamin B6. So, if in the first year the difference between the two groups was not visible, then in two years it was rather substantial and amounted, according to the author, 40%. The results of these observations confirm that vitamin B6 can be used to prevent tooth decay in children.
C. M. Good (1966) used for the prevention of dental caries in children ages 7 to 15 years (461 people) vitamin E (0,005 grams per day for 3 months. year), PP (0.015 grams per day for 3 months. every six months). These vitamins were added additionally to the diet of pupils of the boarding school. The observation lasted for three years. The results were evaluated by the prevalence of dental caries and the increase in the number of decayed teeth, on average, one child.
The author managed to show that the introduction of vitamins E and PP in the diet does not have a significant impact on the performance of dental caries after the first year of observation. However, after two or three years the distinction with the control group of children, which was conducted only sanation of oral cavity, it was already noticeable.
So, on the second and third year of observation significantly reduced the number of children paralyzed by caries and very significantly decreased the growth in the number of decayed teeth, on average, one child, especially with the introduction of vitamin e On the basis of these data the author believes that vitamin E can be recommended for the prevention of dental caries along with other drugs.
S. A. Khamidullina (1970) conducted the monitoring group of children (212 persons), which in addition to the ration gave daily 50 mg of ascorbic acid in the next two years. In parallel watched the control group of preschoolers (148 people)who were in similar conditions. The evaluation of the results was carried out on the basis of indicators of dental caries in both groups of children.
As a result of these observations, the author found that in children receiving more ascorbic acid, indicators of dental caries and especially its intensity was lower on average 20 - 25%. The best effect was achieved in children with relatively high (3 - 9 carious teeth) defeat, several of the worst - if you have a single carious lesions. Therefore, the more revealed the incidence of caries, the earlier and more significant expressed anticariogenic effect of additional introduction of ascorbic acid. The only exception was the group of children with a very high frequency of lesions (>10 teeth). Based on observations S. A. Khamidullina recommended the use of ascorbic acid in the complex of other anticariogenic events.
The shown data gives evidence about a particular anticariogenic the influence of vitamins, however, the effectiveness of their insufficient and it is expedient to use them in combination with other General and local methods of prevention.