Types of temperament and traits

Among the points that define the infinite variety of human individuals is essential properties of the basic processes of nervous activity - excitation and inhibition. First, these processes can be different forces; second, they have a different balance each other; third, they have different people with different mobility (i.e. different ability to quickly replace each other). Depending on the combination of these properties, as shown by I. P. Pavlov, we have four main types of higher nervous activity with lots of transitions Between them. These four types, and represent the four temperaments that have in ancient times were selected by the Supervisory artists and doctors and is known as the temperaments by Hippocrates: sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic.
The sanguine nervous processes, being strong and balanced, and have good mobility. This is the most complete type of the nervous system. He is not only easy to cope with life's difficulties, but can also quickly adapt to the changing conditions of life and work, and quickly responds in a new environment.
The phlegmatic processes of excitation and inhibition are too strong and well balance each other, but their mobility is low. Unlike a live, fast sanguine such person slow, deliberate, not immediately versed in the new environment. Sometimes it can be called tulouna. However, his actions are always confident and accurate. He is also not afraid of life difficulties. Fine examples of phlegmatic are images of Pierre Bezukhov ("War and peace") and Levin ("Anna Karenina"). This is a full, strong people, but in a new environment they understand immediately, and sometimes find themselves in awkward position.
If the nerve processes are strong, but not enough excitement offset by the slowdown, we get the type of choleric. This is excitable, unrestrained man, not pridumivali to the end of their actions, sometimes coming "headlong". Remember Mitya Karamazov from a Dostoevsky novel or Gogol nozdryov.
Finally, with a weak nervous processes, we obtain the type melancholic: spineless, weak man, extremely indecisive, with the fear related to everything new and unusual. He always passes in front of the challenges of life. The mood is almost always negative. An example of weak type - Belikov from the story of A. P. Chekhov's "Man in a shell".
It is clear that between these four bright types there are many transitional forms. The inherent properties of nervous processes can vary significantly, to improve in the course of life. Hence the huge role of the proper education. People related to the types of choleric and melancholic, most often occur functional disorders of cortical activity that may lead to the development of pathology from the nervous system and internal organs. Therefore, by the will, perseverance, courage, to harden his body, we are increasing the strength and balance of nervous processes become more valuable members of society, but also by people with a more healthy nervous system.
Besides the considered typological characteristics associated with the properties of the main nervous processes, and are common in humans and animals, I. P. Pavlov has allocated specifically human types, depending on the ratio between the signal systems. In humans, the second signal system always prevails over the first. However, the degree of their dominance different, and therefore allocated: medium type, thinking type (with higher prevalence of the second signal system) and artistic type (with more pronounced elements pervichnogo, creative thinking).
Used in certain types of work to find the application the characteristic features of different types. It is clear that the responsible management of work more compatible with the capabilities and aptitudes of the stronger types (predominance of the second signal system). They are leaders in social groups, especially informal leaders. However, the weak type has sometimes its advantages. He has, in particular, high sensitivity, the perception of his thin. Therefore, in certain professions (teachers, artists, actors) people of this stock can achieve even greater success.
As regards specifically the human types, the person thought warehouse, of course, tend to be more exact Sciences, and the face of the artistic type to art.