Body temperature

The body temperature is one of the basic physical constants of the body, providing the optimum level of biological processes in it.
You should distinguish between the temperature of the internal environment of the organism and the temperature of his skin. The temperature of the internal environment maintains a relatively constant level.
Every organ of the body has its own temperature, the value of which depends on the intensity occurring there redox processes. The highest temperature of the liver (39 degrees), slightly lower temperature of the stomach, kidneys and other internal organs.
The temperature of skin of a man above all in the armpit, slightly below the temperature of skin of neck, face, trunk, and extremities. The lowest temperature of skin of hands and feet (24-28C at normal room temperature). Higher than in the armpit, the temperature in the mouth and rectum.
The body temperature and the temperature of the various bodies depends on many factors. Changes in the normal physiological activity of internal organs is accompanied by fluctuations in temperature within fractions of a degree. During intense physical exertion, the body temperature rises by 1-2 degrees-twitch muscle - up to 7 degrees. Skin temperature depends on the ambient temperature, humidity, speed of movement, the nature of the service, cleanliness and moisture of the skin and so on, When unfavorable external environment, there is a cooling (see) or the overheating of the body (see). Known physiological fluctuations in body temperature during the day: the difference between morning and evening body temperature reaches 0,3-0,5 degrees. In elderly and senile age, body temperature may be lower than that of middle-aged people. In healthy people in norm can be a continued increase or decrease in body temperature of about 0.5 degree, as well as the so-called constitutional asymmetry of the body temperature, which is celebrated on different temperatures in the left and right armpit.
Changing the normal body temperature is observed in various diseases or because of disorder of thermoregulation (see). When most of inflammatory diseases of the body temperature rises, with a characteristic pattern of changes in body temperature (see Fever). The lowering of body temperature below 36 OC hypothermia can be observed in the poisoning of curare, nicotine, alcohol, ether, when uraemic and diabetic coma, miksedeme, debilitating diseases. The state of artificial hypothermia (see) is used for certain operations.
Cm. also Thermometry of the body.

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