Methods of investigation of the thyroid gland

When viewed in normal thyroid gland is not visible. You need to have an idea whether any abnormal thickening in the area of the front surface of the neck, as well as any separate entities, changing its configuration. Note the mobility of these formations in the act of swallowing, indicating their affiliation to the thyroid gland.
The position of the head with palpation of the thyroid gland is normal. Palpation of the thyroid gland in a healthy person is determined glandular education elastic consistence, movable and painless. By enlarged thyroid gland careful, but careful palpation determine the uniformity of its increase, smoothness and clarity outlines, its mobility, consistency, presence or absence in the thickness of individual seals. The study was conducted without the act of swallowing and during it. In the absence of increased thyroid, visible, spend palpation each part separately. To do this, use your fingers to gently push outwards, not pressing on the throat, the inner edge of the sternal legs sternocleidomastoid muscle, vermiform cautious movements penetrate into the deeper sections of the neck.
Auscultation hold over the region of the thyroid gland stethoscope; the presence of noise occurs when the increased activity of the thyroid gland, which is explained by the increase of blood flow.
X-ray examination. A normal chest x-ray can reveal retrosternal goiterlocated in the front section of the chest and is well seen on the background of clear lung fields; deposited in the thyroid gland of calcium, as well as the displacement and compression of the trachea and esophagus enlarged thyroid gland.
For more accurate diagnosis of diseases of the thyroid gland method of artificial its contrasting with gas introduced into the tissue surrounding gland (pneumocystography). After the introduction of 150-250 ml gas (oxygen, filtered air, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide) produce x-rays in direct and lateral projections, and tomography. The method allows to determine the form, size of cancer, and lung and nodular goiter.
Also used the method of indirect pneumocystography - gas introduction in the mediastinum (see Pneumomediastinum).
Laboratory methods. Iodine associated plasma proteins, 70 - 80% consists of organic iodine (iodine thyroid hormones) and therefore its content in the blood gives the opportunity to judge about the function of the thyroid gland. In adults, healthy people, blood levels of iodine associated with protein, is 3.5-4 to 8 mcg%, hypothyroidism, often below 3-4 microgram%, and in hyperthyroidism is higher than 8 mcg%.
Radioisotope research methods allow to define the function, topography, thyroid size and activity of its different parts.
To determine thyroid function use the remote definition of its radioactivity installations type DSU-61 and DSU-68 after 2, 4, and 24 hours after oral introduction 1-5 mccoury radioactive iodine. In adults, healthy people the uptake of radioactive iodine by the thyroid gland after 2 hours from 10%to 20%, in 24 hours - 30 - 50% imposed. In patients with hyperthyroidism, these figures are respectively above the maximum in healthy; in patients with hypothyroidism, respectively below the minimum healthy.
Radioisotope studies of thyroid cancer carried by scanning cancer with the help of hematophagous (scanners) 24 hours after oral administration of 50 mccoury radioactive iodine. The method allows not only to determine the topography and size of the thyroid gland, the activity of different areas, but also to identify the activity of "nodes", the size of which is not less than 0.5, see
The main currency is determined in terms of complete rest after twelve hours of fasting. In adults indicators range from + 10% and -10%, in hyperthyroidism they exceed + 20 %, hypothyroidism they are lower than in healthy.
Puncture biopsy of the thyroid gland is used rather seldom. It allows to diagnose cysts and tumors of the thyroid gland.